Music Appreciation- Exam 4

Theme

Melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition. Also subject.

Thematic Development

Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm. Also thematic transformation.

Motive

short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit.

Absolute music

Music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program. Also pure music.

The Classical Era is often refereed to as?

Rococo era, a simpler artistic expression as
opposed to the grandiose gestures of the late Baroque era.

Classicism saw a move away from the elaborate ______ textures of the Baroque Era
toward a single melody line with a simple chordal accompaniment (homophony). Music of the Classical era is often described as ______.

polyphonic; melody centric

the standard multi movement cycle consists of _____ or _____ movements in prescribed forms
and tempos and is employed in various genres including the ______, the _____, the ____ ____, the _____ and many other chamber works as well.

Three or four; symphony, sonata, string quartet, concerto

Typical multi movement cycle:

First movement in sonata-allegro form (usually most highly
organized and longest movement); Second Movement is usually a slow movement characterized by lyrical melodies and is in a shortened sonata form or a theme and variations; Third Movement was often

The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are:

exposition (statement of two opposing themes and their keys); Development (section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay); Recapitulation (restatement of the first and second themes both in the tonic key and is

Chamber Music

ensemble music for up to about ten players, with one payer to a part.

string quartet

chamber music ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, and cello. Also a multi movement composition for this ensemble.

divertimento

classical instrumental genre for chamber ensemble or soloist, often performed as light entertainment. related to serenade and cassation

serenade

classical instrument genre that combines elements of chamber music and symphony, often performed in the evening or at social functions. Related to divertimento and cassation.

Franz Joseph Haydn

o Choir boy in Vienna
o At 29 was taken on by the Patronage of Prince Esterhazy
o Enjoyed phenomenal musical success with two trips to England

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

o Mozart was a very famous child prodigy, composing before the age
of 5
o Rebelled against the patronage system and struggled to achieve
financial independence
o Died at the age of 35

Chamber music blossomed in popularity during the ____.

Classical era

Central position in Classical chamber music was the ______ ______, however a wide variety of other instrumental ensembles were also
featured

string quartet

The melody for the slow movement of Haydn's String Quartet, Op. 76, No. 3 became the national anthem for?

Germany

Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik is a _____ and the first movement is a good example of the _____ _____ form

serenade;sonata-allegro

Rocket theme

quickly ascending rhythmic melody used in the Classical-era instrumental music;the technique is credited to composers in mannheim, Germany.

Steam Roller

A drawn-out crescendo heard in classical era instrumental music; a technique credited to composers in Mannheim, Germany.

Ludwig Van Beethoven

-born in germany
-from age 11 played organ and harpsichordist
-he was deaf
-wrote heiligenstadt testament
-supreme architect in music
-compositional activity fell into three periods: the first reflected classical elements, the second had strong dynamic co

the classical symphony had its roots in the:

Italian opera overture

Pre-classical symphonies were:

3 movements derived from the fast-slow-fast sections of the italian opera overture

what were some of the key contributions of the classical symphony made by composers from Mannheim, Germany?

the addition of the minuet and trio making a 4 movement cycle, quick crescendos (rocket theme), drawn out crescendos (steamroller)

The heat of the orchestra was the ____ ____ and the number of players in a classical orchestra typically was ____

string section; 30-40

The four movements of the classical symphony were?

1st movement: Allegro in sonata-allegro form
2nd movement: was slow and could be a theme and variation form, modified sonata-allegro form and most typically a three-part form (ABA)
3rd movement: a minuet and trio replaced by scherzo and trio by the end of

Haydn earned the nickname ____ and contributed over ____ symphonies firmly establishing the genre.

Father of the symphony" and 100

Beethoven rejected the ____ system and primarily functioned as a ____ ____ composer

patronage; freelance independent

Beethoven supported himself through?

teaching music lessons, publishing his music and giving public concerts

Later in life, Beethoven suffered from ___ ___, but continued his career as a musician.

hearing loss

Beethoven only contributed __ symphonies, but all of them are considered the ____ of the genre.

9; pinnacle

Beethoven compositional activity fell into three periods:

1st: reflected the classical elements he inherited from Haydn and Mozart
2nd: saw characteristics more closely associated with the 19th century
3rd: used more chromatic harmonies and developed a language that would transcend into the Romanticism of the 19

Cadenza

virtuosic solo passage in the manner of an improvisation, preformed near the end of an aria or a movement of a concerto

Sonata

Instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble.

The term concerto implies:

the opposition of two dissimilar elements, such as soloist or solo group versus an orchestra

the classical concerto has:

three movements, alternating fast-slow-fast

the first movement of a classical concerto is sometimes described as a:

sonata-allegro form with a double exposition and typically begins with the orchestra playing the first exposition followed by the soloist playing the second exposition

the slow second movement of the classical concerto, generally ____, ____, or ____, features song like melodies

andante, adagio, or largo

the third movement of a classical concerto is typically an allegro or presto (very fast), shorter than the first movement and in ___ form and also contains a ___ by the soloist that brings the concerto and exciting end.

rondo; cadenza

a typical feature of the classical concerto is:

a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called a cadenza and often highlight the virtuosity of the solo performer

Classical sonatas were set for either...

one solo instrument (most often the pianoforte) or for duos

the solo piano sonatas of Beethoven and Mozart are the _____________. Especially those of beethoven with him writing ___ piano sonatas and many of them looking forward to the emotional expressiveness of the ____ ____.

most significant in keyboard literature; 32; romantic era

Mass

Central service of the Roman Catholic Church

Requiem Mass

Roman Catholic mass for the dead

Oratorio

Large-scale dramatic genre originating in the Baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, preformed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, costumes, or action.

Opera Seria (serious opera)

Tragic Italian Opera

Opera Buffa (comic opera)

Italian comic opera, sung throughout

Ballad

A form of English street song, popular from the 16th through the 18th centuries. Ballads are characterized by narrative content and strophic form.

Singspiel

Comic German drama with spoken dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera.

Opera Comique

French comic opera, with some spoken dialogue

Christopher Willibald Gluck

...

Classical era choral music inherited a rich tradition from the ___ and the ___ and ____ were still the primary choral genres. However, by the 18th century these genres were no longer exclusively performed in the church but had found a much larger audience

Baroque; mass; oratorio; concert

A Requiem Mass is a?

musical setting of the mass for the dead

Opera during the classical era was..

widely popular and reached the broadest audience

Opera seria was a highly formalized style derived from Baroque operas of Italy and featured ____ and ____ specifically designed to display the virtuosity of star singers. The ____ were the pargets patrons of the opera seria.

recitatives and arias; aristocracy

How did Gluck reform opera seria?

by creating a highly expressive music drama that had much audience appeal

What comic operas flourished in England?

ballad or dialogue opera

What comic operas flourished Germany?

Singspiel

What comic opera flourished in France?

opera comique

what comic opera flourished in Italy?

opera buffy

____ ____ were the middle class response to the aristocratic form of opera seria.

Comic operas

comic operas were generally in the ____, presented lively, down-to-earth plots, exciting ensemble participation as opposed to elaborate solo arias, farcial situations, humorous dialogue, popular tunes, and a centralized role of the ____, a buffoon who spo

vernacular; buffo

Strophic

song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (strophe) of the poem.

Through-composed

song structure that is composed from beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections.

Modified strophic form

Song structure that combines elements of strophic and through-composed forms; a variation of strophic form in which a section might have a new key, rhythm, or varied melodic power.

Lied

German for "song"; most commonly associated with the solo art song of the 19th century, usually accompanied by the piano.

Song Cycle

Group of songs, usually Lieder, that are unified musically or through their texts.

Franz schubert

born outside vienna and educated at the Imperial Chapel; buried by beethoven; his music marks the confluence of the classical and romantic eras; wrote elfking when he was a teenager

Robert Schumann

born in Zwickau, Germany; injury to right hand dashed his dream of being a pianist; had dementia from syphilis; music has impassioned melodies, novel changes of harmonies, and driving rhythms that reveal him as a true romantic; common theme in his music w

French Revolution fostered the rise of...

a middle class or bourgeois society

____ poets and artists turned to passionate subjects and novels explored human conflicts and exotic settings and subjects.

Romantic

The industrial revolution changed much throughout ____ and the _____

Europe and the americas

_____ _____ spread across Europe and the Americas

Music conservatories

Romantic composers used what kind of subjects?

nationalistic, folkloric and exotic subjects

____ musicians excelled and established prominent careers

Women

19th century musicians no longer had to rely on ____ ____ and could support themselves independently through the popularity of thei music and the development of the middle class. Preforming musicians became "____

aristocratic patronage; "stars

what are the three main song-structures that prevailed?

1.) Strophic Form
2.) Through-composed
3.) modified strophic form

The Lied is...

a new genre, a German-texted solo vocal song; German term for art song

A group of Lieder unified by some narrative thread or a descriptive or expressive theme is called a ____ ____

song cycle

Etudes

study piece that focuses on a particular technical problem

nocturnes

Night Piece;" introspective work common in the 19th century, often for piano

Preludes

instrumental work preceding a larger work

Mazurka

Type of Polish folk dance in triple meter

Polonaise

stately Polish processional dance in triple meter

Shape-note notation

music notation system originating in 19th century American church music in which the shape of the note heads determines the pitch; created to aid music reading

program music

instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the 19th century.

During the 19th century the developments were made of the modern piano that now know (piano forte):

increased string diameter and tension, metal frame to support the increased tension, expansion from 5 octave range to seven or more, production moved to the factory for increased productivity and at a reduced cost, emergence of piano manufacturers such as

The ___ was common in most households and salon performances were popularly preformed by ____ and ____.

piano; amateurs and professionals

The piano also enjoyed much success in the ____ ___ with virtuosic performers elevated to a level of esteem and fame

concert hall

________ were the equivalent of the art Art Song and were often improvisatory in character or bore descriptive titles or purely instrumental forms of dance forms

short lyric piano pieces

____ and ___ music were popular in 19th century American music culture as well as imported music from europe

Devotional and parlor

the program in program music is supplied by the composer either in the ____ or in an ___ ___.

title; explanatory note

Four main types of program music:

1. concert overture
2. incidental music
3.program symphonies
4. symphonic poem

concert overture

might evoke a land or seascape or embody a literary or patriotic idea

incidental music (to play)

usually an overture and a series of pieces performed between acts and during important scenes

program symphony

large scale multi-movement that puts a story to music utilizing ide´┐Ż fixe (fixed idea) and thematic transformation as a unifying thread throughout the movements

symphonic poem (tone poem)

program music for orchestra in one movement with contrasting sections

19th century saw a huge rise in ____ in the works of many composers expressed in many ways, songs and dances of a people, works based on ____ and ____ life or the story of a national hero or a historic event or the landscape or scenery of a country.

nationalism; folklore and peasant life

idee fixe (fixed idea)

Fixed idea;" term coined by Berlioz for a recurring musical idea that links different movements of a work.

Bel Canto

Beautiful singing;" elegant Italian vocal style characterized by florid melodic lines delivered by voices of great agility, smoothness, and purity of tone.

leitmotifs

Leading motive," or basic reoccurring theme, representing a person, object, or idea, commonly used in Wagner's operas.

Instrumental music endowed with literature, philosophical, or pictorial associations is called?

program music

What are the four main types of program music?

concert overture, incidental music, program symphony, symphonic poem (tone poem)

Musical nationalism gained mush popularity and notoriety among ____ composers

romantic

Romantic composers continued to write in the ___ genres established during the classical era.

absolute

Romantic opera developed ___ ___ styles.

distinct national

___ ___ and ___ ___ were favored in Italy and marked the pea of the bel canto style

opera seria and opera buffa

_____ music dramas marked Germany's move away from the light Singspiel to a more serious style integrating all elements of opera.

Wagner's

Wagner's operas employ the ____ as an element of drama and glorify the German land and people.

supernatural

____ became an independent art form in the 19th century.

Ballet

Music Drama

Wagner's term for his operas

What is the most important organizing element in absolute music?

form

symphonies, concertos, and chamber music continued in the 19th century upholding the forms established during the Classical period but with a Romantic tone that included what qualities?

colorful harmonies, expanded orchestration, expanded ensembles including many new instruments; expressive, lyrical melodies, and expanded proportions of the established forms.

Romantic concerto follows form of Classical concerto with the exception of the ____ starting instead of the orchestra and an added emphasis on ____ evident in cadenzas often occurring during the development sections

soloist; virtuosity

In Germany, the ___ gave way to more serious opera works including Wagner's massive productions called music dramas which incorporated all elements of opera and theater and were continuous in form using ____(reoccurring themes) for unification

singspiel;leitmotifs

____ ____ dance company in Paris opened up a new chapter in European cultural life bringing the Russian Ballet tradition into favor.

Ballet Russes

F.J Haydn

contributed over 100 symphonies; nicknamed "father of the symphony;" established four movement structure;

Christoph Willibald Gluck

German-born but Italian-trained composer; created a new, highly expressive music drama that had much audience appeal.

Frederic Chopin

his style was entirely his own and he remains one of the most original artists of the 19th century; rooted in the heart of romanticism; credited with originating the modern piano style; had a relationship with George Sand

Felix and Fanny Mendelssohn

Fanny's music was neglected until her brother, Felix, revealed her talents; her story enhances our modern-day understanding of the challenges faced by romantic-era women musicians

Franz Liszt

considered to be the greatest pianist of his time; taught extensively and trained a generation of great concert pianists.

Stephen Foster

often considered America's first great song writer; one of the first to make a living as a professional song writer; music is distinctly american

Hector Berlioz

music is intense, bold, and passionate; he was the 1st great proponent of musical Romanticism in France; works show the favorite literary influences of the Romantic period; had an affinity in his orchestral music for the vividly dramatic or pictorial prog

Bedrich Smetana

first bohemian composer; many of his works project his strong nationalistic feelings or the beauty of Bohemias country side

Edvard Grieg

nationalist composer of the 19th century; Norwegian master; stood out for his ability to capture the essence of his country's folklore and dance through music; goal to create an art that was accessible to the public

Richard Wagner

german composer who changed german opera with his music drama.

Tchaikovsky

had a natural affinity for the ballet; his three ballets were established as basic works of the Russian repertory; 1st russian whose music appealed to western tastes;

Antonin Dvorak

Bohemian composer (Czech Republic). His new world symphony incorporated elements of absolute and program music

Johannes Brahms

German composer who expanded the form of the Classical symphony and best incorporated Romanticism within the framework of absolute music; heir to the great tradition of symphony composers: haydn, mozart, beethoven

Giuseppe Verdi

italian opera composer (28 operas). he caried the italian tradition of opera seria and opera buffa thru the 19th century creating a national style that was distinctly italian