AP Psych Vocab Ch. 2

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

hindsight bias

the tendency of people to overestimate their ability to have predicted an outcome that could not possibly have been predicted.


All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

normal curve

the hypothetical bell-shaped distribution curve that occurs when a normal distribution is plotted as a frequency polygon.


a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system, our body's cells which make up the nervous system.

sensory neuron

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord, they are responsible for sensing a stimulus.


A nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord, they connect spinal motor and sensory neurons


the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body


the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

myelin sheath

a layer of fatter cells that surround the axon fibers of the neuron and acts as a conductor and insulator, which makes the electrical impulse triggered by the neurotransmitters travel faster down the neurons

action potential

occurs when a neuron transmits an electrical charge down its axon, which terminates in the release of chemical signals in the form of neurotransmitters.


the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse


the place where two neurons meet to transmit information


a chemical messenger inside the body


reabsorption of neurotransmitter into the neuron


neurotransmitters linked to reduced pain, stress, and improve mood

central nervous system

composed of the brain and spinal cord.

peripheral nervous system

composed of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems

parasympathetic nervous system

a set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state after periods of stress or danger

sympathetic nervous system

Responsible for responding to dangerous or stressful situations (fight or flight)