The cardiovascular (CV) consists of the what?

-heart-blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins)

What are the functions of the CV system?

supplying oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removing wastes from them

The heart is a hallow ________ shaped muscular pump.


The heart is within the __________.


The heart rests on the _________.


The average adult hear is how big?

14 cm long9 cm wide

The heart lies _________ to the sternum.


The heart's apex extends to the _________ intercostal space.


The pericardium consists of two layers; the outer, tough connective tissue _______ pericardium, surrounding a more delicate. double-layered sac that surrounds the heart.


The inner layer directly covers the heart and is called the ____________ pericardium or ___________.


At the base of the heart, the inner layer folds back to become the ___________ pericardium.


Between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium is a potential space called the ____________ cavity.


The pericardial cavity is filled with ________ fluid, which reduces friction.


Outer Most Layer of the heart made up of connective tissue and epithelium....


Middle Layer of the heart which is the thickest layer made up of cardiac muscle is the ....


Inner most layer of the heart made up of connective tissue and epithelium ( Smooth Muscle )


2 Upper chambers of the heart?

atria (atrium)

2 lower chambers of the heart?


WHat divides the 2 left chambers of heart from the 2 right chambers?


Which chambers are receiving chambers?

Atria (Atrium)

Which chambers pump blood?


The right Atrioventricular valve (AV) is called what?


Left Atrioventricular valve (AV) is called what?


Strings attached to the Atrioventricular Valves?

Chordae Tendinea

_____________ muscles are attached to the chordae Tendinea in the inner heart wall and contract during ventricular contraction to prevent back flow of blood through the AV valves


Function of the Semilunar valves? (Pulmonary and aortic valve)

Prevent back flow of blood

The rings of dense connective tissue that surround the pulmonary trunk and aorta to provide attachment for the heart are? (Prevent dilating of tissue in the area)

Valves and muscle fibers

What is the function of the pulmonary Circulation?

to carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium.

What is the function of the systemic circulation?

deliver oxygen and nutrients to body cells and tissues

First branches of the Aorta that carry oxygen rich blood and feed the heart directly are the?

Coronary Arteries

Smaller branches of arteries that provide an alternate pathway for blood should one pathway become blocked in heart are?


Which vein drains blood from the heart?

Cardiac Vein

The Coronary ________ drains into the right atrium?

Sinus ( which is fed by the cardiac vein )

Atria beating in unison when ventricles rest is called?

Atria Systole

When the ventricles rest its called

Ventricle Diastole

Contraction of the ventricles is called?

Ventricle Systole

Pressure within the heart chambers rises and falls, this pressure change opens and closes the?

Heart valves

When the atria fills the pressure is ?


When atria pressure is greater what valves open?

Tricuspid and Mitral valves

When the ventricles contract what happens?

Tricuspid and Mitral close and the aortic and Pulmonary valves open

What sound can describe the heart beat?


When the ventricles contract and the tricuspid and Mitral vales close this is the?

FIrst sound of heart ( LUBB )

When ventricles relax and the aortic and Pulmonary valves close this is the?

Second heart sound ( DUPP)

Blood Vessels

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins

What role does blood vessels have?

Carry blood too and from the heart and cells

Strong, elastic vessels adapted for carrying high pressure blood away from the heart


When arteries divide and become smaller they are called?


Inner wall of an artery?

Tunica Interna (endothelial layer)

Middles wall of artery?

Tunica Media (Smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue)

Outermost layer of Artery?

Tunica Externa (Connective Tissue)

When directed by sympathetic impulses arteries will?


When diameter of artery vessel increases this is referred to as?


Smallest vessel consisting only of Endothelium?


Can regulate the amount of blood entering a capillary bed and are controlled by OXYGEN concentration

Precapillary Sphincter

Blood entering capillaries contain high concentration of?

Oxygen and Nutrients

Why do plasma proteins remain in the blood?

They are too large to get through the capillary walls

Which pressure drives fluids and small molecules out of capillary?


Which pressure causes tissue fluid to retunr to the blood stream?


collects excess tissue fluid and returns it to the circulation

Lymphatic Capillaries

Small vessels that lead from capillaries and merge to form larger veins?


Veins have the same three layers as arteries and have a flap like _______ inside to prevent backflow of blood?


How do veins differ from arteries?

Their muscle layer is thinner, they are compressible and have lower pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood against the inner walls of blood vessels anywhere in the cardiovascular system, although the term "blood pressure" usually refers. to __________ pressure.


During ventricular contraction, arterial pressure is at its ______ or _______ pressure.

systolic, maximum

When the ventricles are relaxing, arterial pressure is at its _________ or ________ pressure.

diastolic, minimum

The surge of blood that occurs with ventricular contraction can be felt at certain points in the body as ___________.


What are the factors that affect blood pressure?

cardiac output, blood volume, peripheral resistance and blood viscosity

Blood vessels can be divided into 2 major pathways, the ____________, which goes from the heart to the lungs and back, and the _____________ circuit, which goes form the heart to the body cells and back.


What is the body's larges artery?


The branches of the ascending aorta are the right and left __________ arteries that lead to heart muscle.


Principal branches of the aortic arch include _________________, left common carotid and left _______________.


Arteries to the head, neck and brain include branches of the subclavian and common _________ arteries.


The _______________ arteries supply the vertebrae and their associated ligaments and muscles.


In the cranial cavity, the vertebral arteries unite to form a _______ artery that ends as two posterior cerebral arteries.


The posterior cerebral arteries help form the circle of _________ that provides alternate pathways through which blood can reach the brain.


Near the base of the internal carotid arteries the carotid _______ which contain baroreceptors to monitor blood pressure.


The subclavian artery continues into the armpit area, where it becomes what artery?

axillary artery

In the shoulder region, the axillary artery becomes the _______ artery, that in turn, gives rise to the ulnar and radial arteries.


As the pelvic brim, the abdominal aorta divides to form the ______ _______ arteries that supply the pelvic organs, gluteal area and lower limbs.

common iliac

The common iliac arteries divide into what?

the internal and external iliac arteries

External iliac arteries lead into the legs, where they become the _________ popliteal, anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries.


Veins form the head and upper torso drain into what?

superior vena cava

Veins from the legs and lower trunk drain into the what?

inferior vena cava

The IVC and SVC both drain into what?

right artrium

The ________ veins drain into the head and unite with the subclavian veins to form the brachiocephalic veins.


Blood draining from the intestines enters the ________ ________ system and flows to the liver first rather than into the general circulation.

hepatic portal

The deep veins include the anterior and posterior tibial veins, which unite into the ______ vein and then the femoral vein; superficial veins include the small and great ________ veins


The anterior and posterior tibial veins, popliteal vein, femoral vein, small and great sephenous veins all merge to empty into the common iliac veins, which then merges to form what?

inferior vena cava