Nutrition & Bio.


-Provide energy-Yield 4 kcal/gram

Monosaccharides (aka simple carbs)

Glucose (blood sugar)- main fuel for the brain and needed for RBC's.- body uses this form the most.- absorbed in the main intestine.fructose- sweetest of all sugars- honey and fruitsgalactose- sources found in milk/dairy products


12 carbon atomsSucrose (table sugar)- hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose - most commonLactose (milk sugar)- hydrolyzed into glucose and galactose Maltose (plant sugar)- hydrolyzed into two glucose molecules

Polysaccharides (complex carbs)

contain more than 10 monosaccharidesStarch- storage form of energy in plantsGlycogen- storage form of energy in humans (muscle + liver)Fibers- 20-35mg/day


accumulation of ketones in the blood, or in completely oxidized fatty products.


greater than 130 mg/dl BEFORE mealsorgreater than 180 mg/dl 2hrs AFTER meal


less than 70 mg/dl


20 amino acids main function to build new and repair old body tissuescontains: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.principal source of nitrogen for the body and are fundamental component of every human cell.



fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

vitamin A

Classes: retinoids + carotenoidsFunction: visiongrowthcancer preventiondietary source:beef liver, egg yolk, milk, carrots, squash, spinachdeficiency: growth failure, dry skin, eye disorder

vitamin D

Function: helps absorb calcium and phosphorus + formation of bones and teethdietary source:synthesized in skin exposed to sunlight, fortified foods and fishdeficiency: rickets- disturbance of normal bone formation (infancy and childhood)osteomalacia- softening of bones in adults + loss of lamina dura

vitamin E

Function: acts as anticoagulant (blood thinner)preserves fatsdietary source:seed oils, green leafy veggies, and whole grainsdeficiency: interferes with vitamin K activity

vitamin K

Function: aid in formation of blood clotting dietary source:green leafy veggiesdeficiency: hemorrhaging

Thiamin (B1)

Function: energy to the brain, heart and CNSdietary source:pork, grains, milk, sunflower seedsdeficiency: beriberi= neuropathy, diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, and poor memory.+ muscle weakness, damage to nervous and cardiovascular system.

water soluble vitamins

ALL B vitamins + C

Riboflavin (B2)

Function: growth and production of RBC'sdietary source:beef liver, milk, steak, mushroomsdeficiency: angular cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis

Niacin (B3)

Function: energy productiondietary source:plant + animal foodsdeficiency: pellegra- degeneration of the skin, GI tract and nervous system, - dermatitis, diarrhea, depression or dementia, and death

Pantothenic acid (B5)

Function: carbs, fat and protein metabolismdietary source:animal foods, whole grain cereals, bacteria in digestive tract produce B5deficiency: very rare, burning sensation in feet, may impair healing of oral tissue

Pyridoxine (B6)

Function: conversion of tryptophan to niacindietary source:meat, poultry, fish, bananas, nuts, whole grains, veggiesdeficiency: toxicity severe ataxia (impaired coordination) and sensory neuropathyrarely occurs alone, commonly observed with other B deficiencies, CNS abnormalities or convulsions.

Biotin (B7)

Function: synthesis and oxidation of fats and carbs + maintains metabolic homeostasisdietary source:egg yolk, liver, cerealsdeficiency: pallor of the tongue+ patchy atrophy of the lingual papillae

folic acid folate (B9)

Function: formation of neural tube during first month of fetal development dietary source:beef liver, veggies, cereals, grains, legumesdeficiency: ulcerations on the tongue and oral mucosa + glossitis

Cobalamin (B12)

Function: coenzyme in conjunction with folate metabolism in DNA synthesis dietary source:animal products + fortified plantsdeficiency: pernicious anemia- body cannot absorb B12 in GI tractglossopyrosis- unexplained pain, burning of the tongue

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Function: improving immune system response + collagen formationdietary source:citrus fruits, tomatoes, green peppersdeficiency: scurvy- can occur in 20 days, can see diarrhea, fatigue, depression, and cessation of bone growth.


water balance acid base balance


production of thyroxine


fluid electrolyte balancemuscle contractionreduces adverse effects of sodium in blood pressure


genetic disorder marked by the inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine*avoid aspartame


A wasting away of body tissues in the infant's first year, caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency.


edema of the extremities, torso, face