N48938 Checkride Prep

What type of engine does the aircraft have?

Avro Lycoming 0-235-L2C

What is the engine horsepower?

110 HP

How many gallons of useful fuel does the aircraft hold?

24.5 USEFUL , 26 TOTAL*

What type of oil should be used in this engine?

MIL-L-6082 Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil

What type of coolant is in the aircraft?

Air Cooled Engine*

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vr

Vr = Rotate Speed = 55 KIAS (Knots indicated air speed) (remember these speeds are for the C152, for other aircraft read their POH) -

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vx

Vx = Best Angle of Climb (Obstacle) = 55 KIAS - To remember this, remember that the "x" in "Vx" has a lot of angles in the letter, which makes "best angle of climb" easier to remember

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vy

Vy = Best Rate of Climb = 70 KIAS (67 technically, but use 70 for simplicity) = Above 10,000 feet this speed is 61 KIAS = This is the most efficient climb speed, but covers a lot of ground

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vg

Vg = Best Glide = 60 KIAS = FOR EMERGENCIES best glide speed distance when engine is out

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vne

Vne = Never Exceed = 149 KIAS = Never exceed this speed in this aircraft

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vno

Vno = Maximum Structural Cruise Speed = 111 KIAS = Only fly this speed in calm air and even then be extremely cautious

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Va

Va = Maximum Maneuvering Speed = 104 KTS = This speed is at maximum weight, at minimum weight this speed is 93 KTS

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vfe

Vfe = Maximum Flaps Extended Speed = 85 KTS = Only extend flaps when below this speed (white arc) and continue to ensure aircraft does not exceed this speed

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vs1

Vs1 = Stall Clean = 40 KTS* = Stall speed in "clean" configuration (No flaps, gear retracted)

Please define in your own words and list the speed for each of the following in the aircraft: Vs0

Vs1 = Stall Dirty = 35 KTS* = Stall speed in "dirty" configuration (flaps fully extended, gear down)

What is the maximum demonstrated crosswind component for the aircraft?

12 KTS*

What is the service ceiling of the aircraft?

14,700 FT

What is the distance to clear a 50 foot obstacle on a standard day?

1340 FT

What is the landing distance over when landing over a 50 foot obstacle on a standard day?

1200 FT

What is the maximum RPM setting? For how long?

2,550 RPM's, POH doesn't state how long, but high RPM's should not be held for long periods. Use 75% throttle when not climbing or maneuvering*

Please describe the loss of engine procedures for the aircraft.


What is the maximum gross weight of the aircraft?

1670 LBS

What is the empty weight of the aircraft?

1101 LBS*

What is the useful load of the aircraft?

574 LBS

With full fuel, how much weight can you carry in the aircraft?

413 LBS

What preflight actions are required before any flight?

? Weather, checklist, etc

List the minimum equipment and instruments that must be working properly in your aircraft for flight

FAR 91.205 & 91.207

How many hours are required between consuming alcohol and flying?

8 Hours

What is the maximum blood alcohol content to legally operate an aircraft?


What are the weather minimums, as defined on your solo endorsement?


What altitude should you fly when operating in level cruising flight at more than 3,000 feet agl?

Magnetic Course 0-179° = ODD thousand + 500 FTExample = 170° heading, flying at 5,500 FTMagnetic Course 180-359° = EVEN thousand + 500 FTExample = 300° heading, flying at 4,500 FT

Why is it necessary to drain fuel from the fuel sumps? When should this be done?

To check for water / particles - should be done before every flight and after fueling aircraft

What type and grade of fuel is used in the aircraft?

100LL (100 Low Lead) otherwise known as AvGas

How do you check the oil level in the aircraft?

By checking the dipstick

Will the engine run with the master switch turned off? Why?

Yes. because the magnetos (creates the spark for piston combustion) run on their own independent system

What is the maximum allowable flap setting for takeoff in the aircraft?

? - 10°

What documents and endorsements are you required having in your possession to legally operate the airplane as a student pilot?

ARROW + EndorsementA - Airworthiness certificateR - Registration R - Radio certificate (ONLY for international travel)O - Owners ManualW - Weight & Balance (NOT the calculated W&B, this is the weight from the factory)+ Solo endorsement if flying as student solo+ Class Bravo endorsement if student solo into class B airspace (Generally N/A unless training out of class B)

Do you need your logbook in your possession when you fly solo? Why/Why not?

Yes, if your solo endorsement is attached to your logbook. Otherwise, the logbook is not required (endorsement is required, however)

During a magneto check, what is the maximum RPM drop?

125 RPM's *

Draw a runway and a traffic pattern and label each leg.

Upwind, Crosswind, Downwind, Base, Final (See handout for drawn pattern)

Which turn direction is standard for a traffic pattern?

Pattern is usually LEFT TRAFFIC unless otherwise specified on the chart supplement

How do you enter and exit the traffic pattern at an uncontrolled airport?

45° into the downwind leg of the pattern, or if entering from otherside, teardrop meanuever over the field 500-1000ft above pattern altitude then a right spiral into the 45° into the downwind leg of the pattern

Describe "Wake turbulence

• Wake turbulence is caused by the wingtip vortices generated by aircraft wings when generating lifto Depends on: Weight, speed, and wing shape• Can cause rapid changes in RW behind the aircraft

In which type of aircraft and in which configuration is this (wake turbulence) most prominent?

Heavy airplane when it's producing lift

What is proper procedure to avoid wake turbulence?

Fly ABOVE wake path of preceding aircraft, land in front of their touch down point and take off before their lift off point (Watch a wake turbulence visualization video to understand this concept and purpose)

When are you required to wear a safety belt? Shoulder harness?

Seat belt ALWAYS when aircraft is moving, shoulder harness if installed and when not maneuvering

What must a pilot do before entering Class D airspace?

Adhere to Class D weather minimumsHave a functional two-way radio onboardEstablish & Maintain two-way ATC radio communication prior to entering the airspace

What is the minimum altitude you can fly anywhere?

An altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.

What is the minimum altitude you can fly over congested areas?

Over any congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or over any open air assembly of persons, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of the aircraft.

What is the minimum altitude you can fly over sparsely populated areas or open water?

The aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

List the documents that must be aboard the aircraft at all times

ARROW + EndorsementA - Airworthiness certificateR - Registration R - Radio certificate (ONLY for international travel)O - Owners ManualW - Weight & Balance (NOT the calculated W&B, this is the weight from the factory)+ Solo endorsement if flying as student solo+ Class Bravo endorsement if student solo into class B airspace (Generally N/A unless training out of class B)

Who has the final authority and responsibility for the operation of the aircraft when you are flying solo?

The pilot (you!)

Can you operate in Class B airspace as a student pilot?

Generally NO, unless you have a Class Bravo airspace endorsement from your instructor

What is the minimum fuel requirement for VFR day conditions?

You need enough fuel to fly to your first landing point and then still have 30 minutes of fuel remaining at a normal cruise speed.

What is the minimum fuel requirement for VFR night conditions?

You need enough fuel to fly to your first landing point and then still have 45 minutes of fuel remaining at a normal cruise speed.

If the altimeter setting is not available at an airport, what setting should you use before departing on a local flight?

Adjust altimeter so that it equals the airport altitude as described on the chart

What are the additional limitations on your solo endorsement?


What are the limitations of a student pilot, as stated in Part 61.89 of the Federal Aviation Regulations?

(a) A student pilot may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft:(1) That is carrying a passenger;(2) That is carrying property for compensation or hire;(3) For compensation or hire;(4) In furtherance of a business;

What must you do before practicing maneuvers?

Perform clearing turns

When practicing Steep Turns, Stalls, and Slow Flight, the entry altitude must allow a recovery to be completed no lower than

1500FT AGL

When two aircraft of the same category are converging head-on, which way do you turn to avoid the other aircraft?

To the right

Give three situations that would necessitate a go-around.

Avoiding a conflict on a runwayWhen ordered by towerWhen on a poor final approach

List the procedure for a go-around.

Full power (carb heat in)Positive pitch to for safe altitudeFrom full flaps, go to 20° , wait 5 seconds, 10° wait 5 seconds, then 0°Radio calls when able, should be done in between retracting flaps.

What is required to become a Private Pilot?

At least 17 years oldHold at least a 3rd class medicalRead write and speak EnglishMeet the aeronautical experience requirements Pass written >=70%Ground & flight training endorsements

What are your privileges and limitations as a private pilot?

Cannot pay less than pro-rata share with passengersCan demonstrate aircraft to buyer if you're an aircraft salesman or broker + 200hrs of logged timePIC of aircraft towing glider 14 CFR 61.69PIC of aircraft in connection to business ONLY if incidental to that business and is not flown for hire

How to remain current with PPL?

within 24 calendar months - flight reviewCarrying passengers day - 3 landings within 90 daysCarrying passengers night - 3 landings at night to full stop within 90 daysPassengers Taildragger - 3 landings to full stop for day and night

What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight?

A.R.R.O.WA - Airworthiness CertificateR - Registration (federal)R - Radio certificate (international only)O - Operations & LimitationsW - Weight and balance

What inspections are required for your aircraft?

AVIATESA - A/D'sV - VOR (IFR ONLY, check every 30 days)I - Inspections (Annual)A - Altimeter (IFR ONLY, 24 calendar months)T - Transponder (24 calendar months)E - ELT (24 cal months)S - Static System Check (IFR Only, 24 calendar months)

100 hour vs annual?

All aircraft required to get annual every 12 months - A&P IA (Inspection Authorization)For hire - 100hr required, A&P

Can a 100 hour take the place of an annual?

No. However, an annual can take the place of a 100hr

What is an MEL?

Minimum Equipment ListEquipment allowed to be broken and still fly the plane

Explain the three types of medicals:

1st Class - ATP's required to have, duration 6 monthsDistance 20/20 in each eye, near vision 20/40Distinguish red, green, whiteNormal field of vision, normal field of hearing2nd Class - Commercial cert required to have, duration 12 monthsSame medical requirements as first class3rd Class - Duration - 60 calendar months UNDER 40 YEARS OF AGE, 24 calendar months OVER 40 YEARS OF AGEDistance 20/40 in each eye. near vision 20/40Distinguish red, green, whiteNormal field of vision, normal field of hearing

What is hypoxia?

Lack of oxygen to the brain

What are four types of hypoxia?

Hypoxic hypoxia - Most common, at high altitudeHypemic hypoxia - anemia, oxygen is available but not enough good blood to carry oxygen. CO poisoning Stagnant hypoxia - reduced cardiac output, pump isnt working well or due to high G situationsHistotoxic Hypoxia - When all systems working, but cells cant take oxygen from the blood (alcohol, cyanide poisining)

What are symptoms of hypoxia?

HeadacheDizzinessBlueing of extremitiesEuphoria

Explain hyperventilation

Indications of hypoxia and hyperventilation are similarControl breathing or breath into paper bag (rebreath C02)

Name 8 types of spacial disorientation

The leans - quick correction Coriolis Illusion - quick head movement gives sensation of different movementGraveyard spin - exiting a spin it feels like spin in opposite direction, re-enter original spinGraveyard spiral - while turning, you've lost altitude. Sensory makes you feel like you're in level flight so you pitch up, you're actually in a turn so you lose even more altitude. The spiral will continue unless fixed by the pilotSomatogravic illusion - rapid acceleration during takeoff pushes pilot back in seat giving sensation of nose up attitude so the pilot pushes the nose downInversion illusion - Climb to level flight feel as they are tumbling backwards. Nosing over intensifies illusionsElevator illusion - Updraft = extreme vertical acceleration the pilot mistakes for a climbFalse horizon - City lights, sloping clouds, darkness. Misinterpret where the horizon actually isAutokinesis - Staring at light at night, the light begins to move

What is standard temperature and pressure?

Standard Temp - 15° C / 59° FStandard Pressure - 29.92in

What are the the three main layers of the atmosphere?


The cause of all weather is a result of a ____?

Heat exchange

Wind is a result of _______?

Changes or differences in pressure

Name the four main types of fog?

Radiation FogAdvection FogUpslope fogSteam fog

Explain Radiation fog

Night, clear skies, calm winds. Heat absorbed on the earths surface is radiated into space. If enough moisture in the air is present, humidity reaches 100%. 3ft - 1000ft, always ground level. NO WIND, if wind it goes away

Explain Advection fog

Looks like radiation fog. Condensation caused by horizontal movement of warm moist air over cold surface. Example: Sea fogs. WIND REQUIRED

Explain Upslope fog

Light wind pushes moist air up a mountain / hill side where the air becomes saturated

Explain Steam fog

Sufficient water vapor is added to the air by evaporation. Moist air mixes with drier cooler air. Cool air mixes with warm moist air, humidity reaches 100%. Wisps of smoke rising off surface of water.

Stable vs unstable air

Stable air - calmstatoform cloudscontinuous precipsmooth airfair to poor visibility / hazeUnstable air - turbulentcumulus cloudsshowery precipgood visibilitystrong surface winds

What is an airmass?

Large body of air with similar temperature and moisture properties throughoutLarge flat areas with stagnant air

What is a front?

Transition zone between two air masses of different densitiesHorizontal and vertical in the air

What are the four main types of fronts?

cold frontswarm frontsstationary frontsoccluded fronts

Explain cold and warm fronts:

Cold: leading edge of colder air that replaces warmer airWarm: leading edge of warmer air that replaces cooler air

Explain Stationary fronts:

Front that is not moving

Explain occluded front:

When a cold front catches up to a warm front

What causes turbulence?

Convective currentsObstructions to wind flowWind shear

Name the three types of icing:

Clear IceRime IceMixed Icing

Explain Clear Icing

Hard and glossy forms after impact of large drops freeze sheet like over the airfoil

Explain Rime Icing

Brittle and frost like, small drops that freeze rapidly before the drop has time to spread across the airfoil

Explain Mixed Icing

Hard and rouge, when drops vary in size or snow is mixed in with the rain

What three ingredients must be present for a thunderstorm to develop?

Sufficient Water VaporUnstable Lapse RateAn uplifting action

Explain Lapse Rate

The lapse rate is the rate at which an atmospheric variable, normally temperature in Earth's atmosphere, falls with altitude.

What are the three stages of a thunderstorm?

Cumulus - Initial updraftsMature - Beginning of falling precipDissipating - Large downdrafts as storm rains itself out

What are isobars?

Lines depicted on a weather chart showing areas of like pressure.

How long are METAR's valid for?

Hourly, unless special METAR (signifigant weather changes)

When are METAR's issued?

55 minutes past the hour

In terms of temperature and dew point spread, when do we need to worry about fog, mist, and low visibility?

When they are 3° or less apart

In terms of METAR's, what are the four different cloud amount abbreviations and what do they represent?

FEW - Few - up to 2/8 of the sky is coveredSCT - Scattered - up to 4/8 of the sky is coveredBKN - Broken - up to 7/8 of the sky is coveredOVC - Overcast - up to 8/8 of the sky is covered

When are TAF's valid for?

24 hours

When are TAF's issued?

4 times daily (Every 6 hours)

What information is required in a PIREP?

UA or UUA - Routine or UrgentOV - "Over", the location of the PIREP TM - Time PIREP received from pilotFL - Flight Level (alt above sea level)TP - Aircraft type

What is a prognostic chart?

- forecast chart up to 24,000ft- issued 4 times daily, provides 12 hour and 24 hour forecast for a given region

What is a surface analysis chart?

Depicts the weather conditions as they were a few hours earlier (as time stamped on the chart)

What is a weather depiction chart?

A computer generated chart based on METAR reports that gives a broad overview of the flying conditions at that time. The chart begins at 01Z every day and is updated every 3 hours, ONLY valid at the time of issuance

What is the difference between an AIRMET, SIGMET, and convective SIGMET?

AIRMET - Less severe conditions which may be hazardous to small aircraftSIGMET - Severe and extreme conditionsConvective SIGMET - Thunderstorms if sufficiently strong or widely spread or embedded

Name the three types of AIRMETs?

TANGO - Turbulence and surface winds greater than 30ktsSIERRA - IFR conditions or mountain obscurationsZULU - Icing

What are Center Weather Advisories (CWA)?

Issued by control centersSIGMET and AIRMET type conditions in greater details for specific air routes

What four forces are always acting on an airplane?


What is Angle of Attack (AOA)?

Acute angle between CHORD LINE of the airfoil and the direction of the relative wind

Define relative wind

The direction of the wind with respect to an airfoil

What is brunullis principle?

Main principle which explains how lift is createdAirflow over upper surface of the airfoil is faster than air under the airfoil.

What is a stall?

Sudden loss of liftAOA increases to a point where flow of air breaks away from the surface of the wing (strings on an airfoil video)

What affects stall speed?

Weight Center of Gravity

How does CG affect the aircraft?

Forward CG - More stable, higher stall speed, lower cruise speedAft CG - Less stable, lower stall speed, higher cruise speed

Explain P-Factor

Right rudder due to climb is because of P-FactorHelicopter blades exampleHigh AOA with propeller blades

What are the two types of drag?

Parasite drag Induced drag

Explain parasite drag

Skin DragForm Draginterference drag

Explain Induced drag

Increases with speed

Explain load factor

The load the wings are supporting divided by the total weight of the airplaneRatio between lift of wings by the total weight of the aircraft

How does an increased load factor increase stall speed?

Heavier loaded airplane has a higher stall speedHigher AOA required for takeoff

What causes a spin?

Spin results from an aggravated stall, yawing motion, excessive rudder inputBoth wings stalled, but one more than other. This leads to corkscrew movement of plane

What is proper spin recovery?

PAREP - Power backA - Ailerons neutralR - Rudder opposite (of spin)E - Elevator forward

When are spins most likely to occur?

During a stall

Define ground effect

When you're flying very close to the ground, the ground limits your wingtip vortices - they can't get as big. So, they cause less downwash. This reduces induced drag

Explain adverse yaw

Nose of aircraft turns away from intended direction of turnDrag from down aileron on higher wing has more drag than the up aileron of the lower wing

Define standard empty weight

Weight of a standard airplane including unusable fuelfull operating fluidsfull oil

Define Optional or Extra Equipment

Any and all ADDITIONAL instruments and equipment installed or not included as standard equipmentWeight of these added to standard empty weight to get BASIC EMPTY WEIGHTIncludes fixed ballast, engine coolant, hydraulic and deicing fluid

What is Basic Empty Weight?

The weight of the airplane with all optional equipment included (full oil included)

What is useful load on an aircraft?

Difference between gross takeoff weight and basic weight emptyAll the load which is removableUseable fuel, pilot, passengers, baggage, etc.

What is payload?

Load available as passengers, baggage, after pilot, crew, usable fuel have been deducted from the useful load

Define operational weight empty

Basic empty weight + weight of pilotExcludes payload & usable fuel

Define usable fuel

Fuel available for flight planning. Unusable fuel - fuel remaining in the tanks after a run out test has been completed.

Explain the different types of altitude:

Indicated altitude True altitude Absolute altitude Pressure altitude Density Altitude

Define Indicated altitude

read off alt indicator when set to local altimeter setting

Define True altitude

Actual height above sea level

Define Absolute altitude

Actual height above terrain

Define Pressure altitude

What the altimeter shows when set to 29.92 (std pressure)

Define Density Altitude

Pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperatureAir density most important factor for airplane performanceAltitude the airplane thinks or feels like its operating atDensity altitude at airport = 3000ft , means the airplane will have the performance of an aircraft at 3000 ft

How to calculate density altitude?

pressure altitude = (standard pressure - your current pressure setting) x 1,000 / field elevationdensity altitude = pressure altitude / [120 x (OAT - ISA Temp)]

What factors affect density altitude?

HIGH Temp. HIGH pressure, HIGH humidity Humidity - Decreases density of the air (water molecules takes the place of air molecules, less bite on propeller)Temperature - Warmer = less densePressure / Elevation - Higher altitude = less dense

Define indicated airspeed

Reading taken from airspeed indicator

Define calibrated airspeed

Indicated airspeed corrected for installation / instrument error.

Define true airspeed

Actual speed of an aircraft through the air

When are position lights (nav lights) required?

At night

When are anti collision lights required at NIGHT? (Strobes OR Beacon)

At all times if your aircraft was manufactured after Aug 11 1971

What color are taxiway lights?


What are REILs?

Runway End Identifier Lights

What color beacon is a lighted LAND airport?

White Green

What color beacon is a lighted SEAPORT?

White Yellow

What color beacon is a lighted HELIPORT?

Green Yellow White

What color beacon is a HOSPITAL or emergency service?

White Green Red

What color beacon is a MILITARY airport

White White Green

What procedures do you take if an engine failure occurs at night?

Land in a well lit area (road)Avoid dark areas - you dont know what it is