-Action carried out by muscles under control of the nervous system-bird uses throat to produce a song-subject to natural selection-assenting part of finding nutrients and a partner for sexual reproduction
Niko Tinbergen's 4 questions
1. What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response?2. How does the animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?3. How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction?4. What is the behavior's evolutionary history?
-"how" a behavior occurs or is modifiedEx-color stimulates behavior in male sticklebacks-they attack red color-first two Tinbergen questions
why" a behavior occurs in the context of natural selectionTimbergens question three and four
the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior
Fixed action pattern
- a sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to sign stimulus(In DNA)-can't change it-sign stimulus triggers itEx-animal attacking red object is a response to the red color
An external sensory cue that triggers a fixed action pattern by an animal.
- a regular, long-distance change in location guided by environmental cues-animals either follow:-The sun, North Star, Earths magnetic field, landmarks-linked to changing seasons
-daily cycle of rest and activity-cycadium clock-24 hour period by external mechanism -Sleep schedule -synchronized with light or dark cycles
-behavioral Rhythms linked to yearly cycle of seasons-influenced by periods of light and darkness in the environment -influenced by new and full moon in fiddler crabs-helps development of offspring
Crabs link their reproduction times to
The greatest tidal movement
Linked to changing seasons
Biological movements linked to
Lunar cycles affect tidal movements
Generated by one animal that guides behavior of anotherEx-when male crabs wave their claw they want female to reproduce with them
-The transmission of information through a common system of symbols, signs, behavior, speech, writing, or signals.-has a role in proximate causation of behaviorEx-pur of a kitten
Four modes of communication in animals
Stimulus response chain
the response to each stimulus is itself the stimulus for the next behavior
honey bee dance
-All on relation to the sun-half circle straight run half circle-uses to inform other bees about the distance and direction of travel to a source of nectar-Tight circles-food is less than fifty meters away-The angle of straight run relative to the hives vertical surface indicates the horizontal angle in relation to the sun-Angle/waggle indicates distance to food
Animals that communicate through odors or tastes emit chemical substances. -relative to reproductive behavior Ex-plant releases hormone when caterpillar is trying to eat it that attracts wasp who attacks caterpillar trying to eat the plant
All individual in a population behave alike-fixed action pattern, court ship stimulus response chain, pherome signaling
the young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species-approach to timbergens seocond question-provides measure of how the social and physical environment influences behavior
modification of behavior as a result of specific experiences-depends on nervous systems organization established during development and genomes
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life-can only take place during a time in development called a sensitive period-young learn basic behaviors
the establishment of a memory that reflects the environments spatial structure-environment where there is nest sites, hazards, food and prospective mates-some animals use visual landmarks to find their homes
a representation in an animal's nervous system of the spatial relationships between objects in its surroundings-some animals keep track of the halfway point between landmarks rather than a fixed distance
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).ex- blue jay eats monarch butterfly. monarch butterflys eat milkweeds which make blue jays throw up. the blue jay throws up when it eats the butterfly so now they stay away from the species
-a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events-if a person rings a bell the dog salivates anticipating food
-"trial and error learning"-animal first learns to associate its behaviors with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior. -rats can associate harmful food with a smell-pigeons can associate danger with a sound
the process of knowing that involves awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgement
Learning through observing others.Ex-monkeys learn how to crack open palm nuts with two stones by copying experienced chimpanzees
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of individuals in a population.-culture transfer of information can alter behavioral phenotypes and influence fitness of individuals
Behavior associated with recognizing, searching for, capturing, and consuming food.-foraging behavior is a compromise between the benefits of nutrition and the costs of obtaining food-predation risk influences this behavior
optimal foraging model
Natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs of foraging and maximizes the benefits
Process in which eggs are fertilized inside the female's body
The process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside of the female
certainty of paternity
the probability that a male is the genetic sire of the offspring his mate produces
one male, one female
One male, several females.
One female, several males.
the study of how people behave in strategic situations where the outcome depends on the strategies of all the individuals involved-rock paper scissor shoot-one wins in a different way every time -relative performance is the key to understanding the evolution of behavior
Behavior that reduces an animals individual fitness but increases the fitness of other individuals in the population. Ex-squairrel makes alarm call to warn the other squirrels about a hawk but calls attention to itself when it does that-honeybees dying after stinging someone
Total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to produce offspring.
Three variables in act of altruism
Benefit to the recipient, cost to the altruist, coefficient of relativeness
The principle that for natural selection to favor an altruistic act, the benefit to the recipient, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness, must exceed the cost to the altruist.
Natural selection that favors altruism by enhancing the reproductive success of relatives
an inherited behavior that does not depend on the environment or experience
A direct competition among individuals of one sex (usually the males in vertebrates) for mates of the opposite sex.
Selection whereby individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice.