Symptoms and conditions


Lack or absence of oxygen in the tissues; often used incorrectly to mean hypoxia


condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen; suffocation

Biot respirations

deep, fast breathing interrupted by sudden pauses; seen in spinal meningitis and other central nervous system disorders


abnormally slow rate of breathing


narrowing of the bronchi caused by smooth muscle spasms; common in cases of asthma and bronchitis

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

a repeating cycle of gradually increased and then decreased respiration followed by a period of apnea; caused by depression of the breathing centers in the brainstem; seen in cases of coma and in terminally ill patients

cor pulmonale

Enlargements of the hearts right ventricle caused by disease of the lungs or pulmonary blood vessels


acute inflammation of the nasal passages with profuse nasal discharge; acute rhinitis

deviated septum

A shifted nasal septum; may require surgical correction


inflammation of the epiglottis that may lead to upper airway obstruction; commonly seen in croup


hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed


A vibration, especially as felt through the chest wall on palpation

Kussmaul respiration

Rapid and deep gasping respiration without pause; characteristic of severe acidosis

pleural friction rub

a sound heard on auscultation that is produced by the rubbing together of the two pleural layers; a common sign of pleurisy


Abnormal chest sound shears when air enters small airways or alveoli containing fluid; usually heard during inspiration; also called crackles


abnormal chest sounds produced in airways with accumulated fluids; more noticeable during expiration


A harsh, high-pitched respiratory sound caused by obstruction of an upper air passageway


Cough; antitussive drug is one that relieves or prevents coughing


a whistling or sighing sound caused by narrowing of a respiratory passageway