chapter 1 history and trends of health care questions

Isolated radium in 1910

Marie Curie

Established the patterns of heredity

Gregory Mendel

Developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796

Edward Jenner

Described the circulation of blood to and from the heart

William Harvey

Began public health and sanitation systems


Discovered X-rays in 1895

William Roentgen

Father of Medicine


Discovered penicillin in 1928

Sir Alexander Fleming

Artist who used dissection to draw the human body

Leonardo da Vinci

Emphasis was placed on saving the soul and study of medicine was prohibited

dark ages

Founded the American Red Cross in 1881

Clara Barton

Earliest people known to maintain accurate health records


Began pasteurizing milk to kill

Louis Pasteur

Used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion


An Arab physician who began the use of animal gut for suture material


Developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens

Robert Koch

Founder of modern nursing

Florence Nightingale

Began using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery

Joseph Lister

Created the first mercury thermometer

Gabriel Fahrenheit

Developed the polio vaccine in 1952

Jonas Salk

What did ancient people think was the cause of disease and illness?

some supernatural powers

In the Dark Ages, what was the main method used to treat illness and disease?

prayer and divine intervention

Why was dissection a major advance in health care during the Renaissance?

allowed doctors to view body organs and see connections between different systems

What was the significance of the invention of the microscope in 1666?

allowed physicians to see organisms too small to be seen by the human eye

What did apothecaries use to make many of the medications in the 17th century?

plants and herbs

Why was the invention of the stethoscope in 1819 important?

allowed physicians to listen to internal body sounds

What is the name of the international agency sponsored by the United Nations that is constantly monitoring health problems throughout the world and taking steps to prevent pandemics?

world heath organization (WHO)

As a CAM practitioner, what are Chinese Medicine Practitioners beliefs based on?

belief that a life energy flows through every living person in an invisible system

The CAM therapy based on the belief that Chi (life energy) flows through meridians (pathways) in the body, and illness and pain occur when the flow is blocked.


The CAM therapy based on the use of substances called antioxidants to prevent or inhibit oxidation and neutralize free radicals.


The CAM therapy that uses special machines to produce negatively charged air particles or ions; used to treat common respiratory disorders.

ionization therapy

The CAM therapy that teaches breathing and muscle relaxation techniques to quiet the mind by focusing attention on obtaining a sense of oneness.