Sexual and Asexual Vocabulary

heredity

Passing of traits from parents to offspring

DNA

where genetic information is encoded

chromatin

consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

chromosomes

when a cell duplicates and the chromatin condenses into rod-like structures

chromatid

1 strand of chromatin and separate during cell division

gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

alleles

alternative forms of a particular gene

homozygous

An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait

heterozygous

an organism that has different alleles for a trait

dominant

An allele that is always expressed

recessive

An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present

phenotype

An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.

genotype

An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.

Law of Dominance

states that some alleles are dominant and some are recessive

Law of Segregation

states that alleles for a particular trait separate into different cells during meiosis

Law of Independent Assortment

states that alleles for one trait separate independently from another trait

codominance

when two alleles are equally dominant

monohybrid cross

a cross in which only one characteristic is tracked

inherited traits

characteristics that are expressed through genes

acquired traits

characteristics that result from environmental influences.