Chapter 1 Vocabulary

Big Data

data sets too large and complex to work with typical database management tools

Business Analytics

describes any use of statistical analysis to drive business decisions from data


An individual about whom we have data

Categorical variable

a variable that names categories (whether with words or numerals) is called categorical


Tells who was measured, what was measured , how data were collected, where the data were collected, when the data were collected and why the study was performed

Cross-sectional data

several variables all measured at one point in time


Recorded values whether numbers or labels along with context

Data mining

use of statistical and other software to discover non obvious patterns in data

Data Table

a chart made up of rows and columns, used to organize data

Data Warehouse

an enormous digital warehouse that contains data gathered from multiple databases

Experimental Unit

An object (person, thing, event, transaction, etc.) upon which we collect data.

Identifier Variable

categorical variable that records a unique value for each casecan't be analyzed, names or identifies


A set of data that describes and gives information about other data.

Nominal Variable

variable whose values are used only to name categories

Ordinal variable

variable whose categorical values possess some kind of order


A person that is apart of a study

Quantitative Variable

numeric; can be represented numerically (Ex: height, age), has units


Information about an individual in a database

Relational Database

a database structured to recognize relations among stored items of information


a person who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire


An application used to store and analyze data.


human experimental unit

Time series

Data measured over time

Transactional Data

Data related to events such as a purchase.


standard quantities used to specify measurements like dollars, hours, inches


holds information about the same characteristic for many cases