CIE A Level Computer Science - Further programming

Programming paradigm

A set of programming concepts

Low-level programming

Programming instructions that use the computer's basic instruction set

Imperative programming

Programming paradigm in which the steps required to execute a program are set out in the order they need to be carried out

Object-oriented programming (OOP)

a programming methodology that uses self-contained objects, which contain programming statements (methods) and data, and which communicate with each other.


A template defining the methods and data of a certain type of object

Attributes (class)

The data items in a class


A programmed procedure that is defined as part of a class


Process of putting data and methods together as a single unit, a class


An instance of a class that is self-contained and includes data and methods


Data and methods within an object that perform a named action


An occurrence of an object during the execution of a program

Data hiding

Technique which protects the integrity of an object by restricting access to the data and methods within that object


Process in which the methods and data from one class, a superclass or base class, are copies to another class, a derived class


Feature of object-oriented programming that allows methods to be redefined for derived classes


Feature of object-oriented programming that allows a method to be defined more than once in a class, so it can be used in different situations

Containment (aggregation)

Process by which one class can contain other classes


A method that gets the value of a property


A method used to control changes to a variable


A method used initiate a new object


A method that is automatically invokes when an object is destroyed

Declarative programming

Statements of facts and rules together with a mechanism for setting goals in the form of a query


A 'thing' that is known


Relationships between facts