CIE A Level Computer Science - Further programming

Programming paradigm

A set of programming concepts

Low-level programming

Programming instructions that use the computer's basic instruction set

Imperative programming

Programming paradigm in which the steps required to execute a program are set out in the order they need to be carried out

Object-oriented programming (OOP)

a programming methodology that uses self-contained objects, which contain programming statements (methods) and data, and which communicate with each other.

Class

A template defining the methods and data of a certain type of object

Attributes (class)

The data items in a class

Method

A programmed procedure that is defined as part of a class

Encapsulation

Process of putting data and methods together as a single unit, a class

Object

An instance of a class that is self-contained and includes data and methods

Property

Data and methods within an object that perform a named action

Instance

An occurrence of an object during the execution of a program

Data hiding

Technique which protects the integrity of an object by restricting access to the data and methods within that object

Inheritance

Process in which the methods and data from one class, a superclass or base class, are copies to another class, a derived class

Polymorphism

Feature of object-oriented programming that allows methods to be redefined for derived classes

Overloading

Feature of object-oriented programming that allows a method to be defined more than once in a class, so it can be used in different situations

Containment (aggregation)

Process by which one class can contain other classes

Getter

A method that gets the value of a property

Setter

A method used to control changes to a variable

Constructor

A method used initiate a new object

Destructor

A method that is automatically invokes when an object is destroyed

Declarative programming

Statements of facts and rules together with a mechanism for setting goals in the form of a query

Fact

A 'thing' that is known

Rules

Relationships between facts