botany quiz review

Ribosomes

made of protein and RNA. They convert genetic material into protein.

Nucleus

Nucleus an organelle that contains most of the cell's genetic material. It regulates cell growth and metabolism.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

manufactures fats

Cytoplasm

a gel-like substance, that holds the other parts in place.

Nucleolus

made of RNA and proteins. It transcribes and modifies RNA.

Mitochondria

cell's power plants

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

manufactures enzymes and proteins.

Cell Wall

a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.

Cell

The basic unit of life.

Cell Membrane

Regulates chemical balance of a cell by deciding what comes in and what goes out.

Golgi Bodies

These organelles are membrane-covered sacs that pack proteins to be sent out like lunch boxes.

Vacuoles

These organelles store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

DNA

genetic material

Chromatin

Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Root system and shoot system

two organ systems of a plant. underground and above ground (respectively)

Herbaceous plants

Doesn't have woody parts above ground

Annuals

Live for 1 year/season

Perennials

Live for more than 2 years, shoots may die off, but roots live on

Ground tissue system

A tissue of mostly parenchyma cells that makes up the bulk of a young plant and is continuous throughout its body. The ground tissue system fills the space between the epidermis and the vascular. tissue system photosynthesis, storage, and support. The mass/meat of the cell.

Vascular tissue system

The circulatory system of the plant, carries out long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots. conducts water, minerals, and food.

Dermal tissue system

The outer protective covering of plants. Protection and gas exchange

Plant organs

Roots, stems, leaves, flower parts, and fruit

Parenchyma

(Ground tissue) Most common type of cell and tissue. Used for photosynthesis, storage, and secretion. Thin cell wall

Collenchyma

(Ground tissue) Flexible support** for herbaceous plants. Usually elongated and found near stem surfaces and leaf veins. Cell walls are unevenly thick, and especially thick at corners. Think of celery. Thick primary cell wall.

Sclerenchyma

(Ground tissue) Provides support and are usually dead at maturity. Sclereids are short cells common in nut shells and fruit cores. Fibers are long, tapered cells in groups or clumps in wood, inner bark, and leaf ribs. Thickest exterior cell wall.

Vascular tissue

Embedded in ground tissue to transport materials. Xylem and Phloem

Xylem

Conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots.-tracheids/vessel elements are dead at maturity-long cells that become hollow with pits/holes at either endthink of a straw

Phloem

Conducts food materials.-sieve-tube elements are alive at maturity but lose most of their organelles-conduct food inn solution-each cell is connected by sieve plates where cytoplasm extends through.

Dermal tissue

Herbaceous plants have epidermis-single layer of cells-no chloroplasts-cuticle- waxy layer to prevent water loss-stomata-pores on underside of leaves to facilitate gas exchange-trichomes-hairs used for salt excretion, light reflection, and protectionWoody plants have periderm-protective outer bark made of cork cells-cells are dead at maturity-cells walls coated with suberin to prevent water loss

Meristems

Growth follows three processes-cell division-cell elongation-cell differentiationPlant growth ONLY happens at meristems-primary growth: height-secondary growth: girth

Primary growth

Apical meristems- tips of roots and shootsProtoderm- becomes epidermisProcambium- becomes xylum and phloemGround meristem- becomes pith, cortex, and ground tissue

Secondary growth

Lateral meristems-extend the lengths of stems and rootsVascular cambium- located between wood and bark, secondary xylem and phloemCork cambium- forms more cork cells