CLINICAL STUDYAs a nurse practitioner in a ruralhospital, you are reviewing amicroscope slide of a skinscraping from a 12-year-old girl. Youobserve branched, intertwinednucleated hyphae. The girls has dryscaly, itchy patches on the arms.What is causing her skin problem?
Explain some ways in which microbes affect your life
1. Decomposing organic waste-Dead bodies of animals: by bacteria and fungi2. Performing photosynthesis-Example: cyanobacteria can perform photosynthesis3. Producing fermented foods-Example: cheese, bread, wine, beer-contain ethanol (alcohol), vinegar, kimche, sour crop (german)4. Producing insulin and many other drugs-Insulin: human hormone5. Produce healthy bacteria in the gut-Vitamin B and vitamin K
How can microbes harm us and in what ways?
1. Infection: reproduce2. Intoxic algae: no reproduce,3. Food spoilage: "old food" in the fridge
Who name/classify microorganisms?
Carlous Linnaeus 1735
Naming system: singular and plural for bacteria
bacterium: one, "U" SINGLE MANbacteria: two or more MARRIED
How does domain bacteria reproduce?
binary fission: mitosis, asexual"gay people thinking they can have kids
How does bacteria move?
uses flagellum or flagella
Describe characterizes of bacteria prokaryotic?
* Single celled organisms• No organelles, no nucleus (DNA held in a nucleoid)• DNA is circular, no introns• Peptidoglycan cell wall • reproduces via Binary fission • Flagella - made with flagellin
How does prokaryotic bacteria obtains its energy?
its heterotrophic, mainly consume organic molecules produced by autotrophic ****some can produce their own: "autotrophic"- photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Rod-shaped bacteria are called
spherical (circle) shape bacteria is called
if coccus bacteria are cluster, then it is called
if bacillus bacteria is cluster, then it is called
Name the three domains
Bacteria, Archaea, EukaryaBAE
name two cell types (school locker)
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic : PE
what domain classifies as eukaryotic?
what domain classifies as prokaryotic?
Archeae, bacteria PEA
How is archaea different from bacteria?
1. No peptidoglycan (have polysaccharides like bacteria)2. have introns
what organisms classify as eukaryotic?
does eukaryotic contain nucleus?
yes, Eukaryotes (have a nucleus containing the cell's DNA),
where does eukaryotic get its energy?
organic molecules vis autotrophic
what domain qualifies as extremists?
Cell wall of eukaryotic made of ____
give example of unicellular and multicellular eukaryotics
yeast, and mold
what is mold composed of?
forming mycelia composed of hyphae (filaments)
Extremists are found in extreme environments but not known to _____ in humans
what are three subgroups of extremists?
Methanogens: produce methaneThermophiles: they love heat/hot environmentsExtreme halophiles: salty environments, they love salt
What cell type is protozoa?
Describe characteristics of protozoa?
1. Unicellular2. Diverse groups (many different shapes)Example: malaria3. move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia, live either freely or as parasites, some are photogenic (use photosynthesis), reproduce sexually or asexually
Which of the following foods is NOT made by fermentation? 1. beer 2. bread 3. cheese 4. orange juice
When using the binomial nomenclature, the genus and species names are capitalized and the whole name is italicized. [True or False]
FalseThe scientific names of species are italicized. The genus name is always capitalized and is written first; the specific epithet follows the genus name and is not capitalized. There is no exception to this.
Which of the following only applies to Archaea?1. These microbes have no nucleus and no nuclear membrane.2. These microbes are not true cells.3. These microbes possess mitochondria.4. These microbes have never been shown to cause disease.
Which of the following is a type of single celled fungal microorganism?1. bacterium2. algae3. yeast4. protozoan5. mold
Select the incorrect statement about a virus.1. It is a single cell organism.2. It contains DNA or RNA, but not both.3. It has a protein coat.4. t is visible through the electron microscope.
Describe characteristics of viruses?
1. Acellular (does not have cells) , Have either DNA OR RNA in core Example: COVID = RNA virus, does not have dna3. Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope taken from host cell membrane
Algae are classified as___and give example of algae
Eukaryotes, do not cause infections, cause intoxicationVolvox
_____ is a symbol of Hermes or Mercury in Greek and Roman mythology.
what is capsid and where is it found?
coat of protein on virus-Nucleic acid in the core surrounded by capsid [a protein coat]
how does virus reproduce?
only reproduce by using cellular machinery of otherorganisms, only considered living when they multiplyinside their host, they are inert (motionless or does not move) outside of hosts
what is obligate intracellular parasites and give example?
viruses: bind within a cell parasite
what type of cell are viruses?
acellular: nor prokaryotic or eukaryotic
what are two types of multicellular animal parasites?
1. platyhelminth: flatworm [pla-dee-hell-minth] 2. nematodes: roundworm
Rod of Asclepius
Greek symbol associated with medicine and healing
viruses has envelope contains incorporated viral proteins called___
____was first life on earth
Who observed the first microbes?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1673- dutch drapery merchant
A large group of one-celled microorganisms that are capable of causing disease arepathogensvirusesall of these qualifybacteriahelminths
what was the belief of spontaneous generation?
4th century BCliving organism come from non-living (rock) "vital force" forms life
Who disprove spontaneous generation?
Francesco redi (1668): beginning of experimental science
Which of the following is true of microbes?Gene expression in bacteria is very similar to gene expression in humans, which facilitates the use of bacteria in recombinant *biotechnology and gene therapy.*Microbes create pollutants and toxins that harm the environment.*99% of all microbes are pathogenic.*All bacterial enzymes are harmful to humans and the environment
Gene expression in bacteria is very similar to gene expression in humans, which facilitates the use of bacteria in recombinant biotechnology and gene therapy.
A disease breaks out among sheep in California. A scientist takes blood from the sheep and grows a previously unknown organism. That organism is then injected into a healthy sheep. The healthy sheep becomes sick with the same symptoms as the original sheep and dies. That sheep's blood is then cultured, and the original organism is isolated. This applies the principles of __________.epidemiologyvaccinationKoch's postulatesspontaneous generation
Which of the following represents the correct format for the scientific name of an organism?Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus AureusSTAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
Which of the following are FALSE concerning microbes?*Microbes produce vitamins in the intestines.*Microbes generate oxygen through photosynthesis.*The primary role of microbes on the planet involves causing disease in animals and humans.*Microbes play a role in breaking down waste and decomposing dead organisms.
The primary role of microbes on the planet involves causing disease in animals and humans.
Which of the following matches the organisms described with the correct domain?*bacteria--unicellular, eukaryotic organisms that always lack cell walls*eukarya--single-celled and multicellular organisms, with a defined nucleus and a variety of nutritional sources*archaea--multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that do not have cell walls*bacteria--unicellular, eukaryotic organisms with cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
eukarya--single-celled and multicellular organisms, with a defined nucleus and a variety of nutritional sources
All microorganisms that regularly populate the human body are referred to as the ___________________.*microbial genome*transient microbiota*human microbiome*human genome
what is the differences between Spontaneous Generation versus Biogenesis
Spontaneous generation *Life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter.*Vital forces in nonliving matter can lead to new life.*Living cells can arise from nonliving matter under favorable conditions.Biogenesis *Microorganisms present in nonliving matter can lead to new microorganisms.*Life can arise as a result of microorganisms present in nonliving matter.*Living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells.
Louis Pasteur conducted an experiment to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation. An overview of this experiment is summarized in this figure. Based on this information, match each component in the experiment with its purpose in this experiment.
Beef broth*provided a nutritious environment to support microbial growth.Bunsen burner (flame)*provided heat that destroyed microorganisms already present in the beef broth.Flask with S-shaped neck*provided the physical conditions for trapping airborne contaminants and preventing microorganisms from entering the flask.Air*provided a source of potential external microbial contaminants.
In this activity, you will predict which scenarios would most likely produce growth if Pasteur's S-shaped neck flasks were cut at various points along the curve.The S-shaped necks of Pasteur's flasks provided an ideal system for testing the role of airborne contaminants in introducing microorganisms in nonliving matter. As Pasteur demonstrated through his experiments, the top curve in the S-shaped neck prevented airborne microorganisms from entering the flask, and, as a result, contaminants collected in the bottom portion of the S-shaped curve.In this figure, four scenarios are proposed (as indicated by arrows) in which the S-shaped neck is broken at different points. Identify the scenario(s) in which airborne which airborne microbial contamination of the sterile beef broth is most likely to occur*scenario a: break near the mouth of the flask*scenario b: break before the first curve in the S-shaped neck*scenario c: break between the first and second curve in the S-shaped neck*scenario d: break after the second curve in the S-shaped neck
*scenario a: break near the mouth of the flask*scenario b: break before the first curve in the S-shaped neck
In this activity, you will identify the conclusions that can be drawn from Pasteur's experiments using S-shaped neck flasks. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from Pasteur's experiment involving the flasks with S-shaped necks?*Pasteur's observations support the theory of spontaneous generation.*Beef broth is an unsuitable environment for growing microorganisms.*Microorganisms can be present in nonliving matter, such as air, liquids, and solids.*Microbial life can be destroyed by heat.*Pasteur's observations support the theory of biogenesis.*Microbes can be blocked from accessing favorable growth environments.*Microbial life can arise from nonliving matter.
*Microorganisms can be present in nonliving matter, such as air, liquids, and solids.*Microbial life can be destroyed by heat.*Pasteur's observations support the theory of biogenesis.*Microbes can be blocked from accessing favorable growth environments.
In this activity, you will identify which items involve aseptic technique.Pasteur's experiments and observations provided the basis for developing aseptic techniques that prevent the introduction of unwanted microorganisms into controlled environments. Given what you have learned from the design of Pasteur's experiment, which of the following scenarios would be considered an aseptic technique?*using a Bunsen burner (flame) to heat a wire inoculating loop prior to use*blowing on heated, sterile surfaces with your mouth in order to facilitate cooling*allowing sterile solutions to be openly exposed to the air*wearing gloves when handling sterile laboratory equipment*taking steps to prevent contaminants from entering sterile solutions
*using a Bunsen burner (flame) to heat a wire inoculating loop prior to use*wearing gloves when handling sterile laboratory equipment*taking steps to prevent contaminants from entering sterile solutions
What important theory is based on the observations of Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek, documenting the existence of microscopic cells?*the theory of spontaneous generation, which held that life forms could arise spontaneously*the germ theory of disease and causative agents*the theory of chemotherapy, or use of antimicrobials to destroy pathogenic organisms*the cell theory, stating that all living things are composed of cell
*the cell theory, stating that all living things are composed of cell
All of the following factors contribute to the threat of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) EXCEPT __________.*spread of known diseases to new geographic regions or populations by modern transportation*evolutionary changes to existing organisms through genetic changes*increased human exposure to new, unusual infectious agents in areas that are undergoing ecological changes, such as deforestation and construction*vaccinations that control epidemiologic spread
*vaccinations that control epidemiologic spread