Interferon alpha and beta are produced by
lymphocytes, epithelial cells, fibroblasts
Interferon alpha and inhibit
viral replication, activate NK cells
promotes inflammation via activated macrophages, also activates t-cells
TNF-alpha can be harmful by inducing
Besides promoting inflammation, TNF-alpha also induces
IL-1 is related to TNF-alpha because of its ability to
Secreted antibody is mainly found in
How is the light chain attached to the heavy chain?
T/F there are two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains in the Ig structure
What gives the Ig its flexibility?
The antigen-binding site of the antibody is...
what does the constant region of the Ig does
mediate effector functions(compliment activation and binding IgG Fc receptors)
___ digestion cleaves ___ at the ___ region
Papain, IgG, hinge
___ digestion cleaves ___ below the ___ region
Pepsin, IgG, hinge
T/F B cells have genetic recombination to produce antibodies
Each antibody molecule has either
kappa or lamba chains
How many classes of light chains can a cell make?
IgM in the circulation exists as a
IgM has a high __ capacity
IgG works by
opsonization of antigens (higher affinity)
IgA serum circulates as
is in fluids, important against mucosal infections
Secretory IgA also contains a ______ which increases resistant to proteolytic cleavage
IgE is found...
on the surface of mast cells and basophils
IgE is important in fighting
parasites and allergies
Ig classes and subclasses
variation of an isotope within a species (IgG vs IgG)
antigenic diversity and specificity of the antigen binding site
5 effectors functions of antibodies are
1. neutralization2. complement fixation3. agglutination4. opsonization5.antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
membrane-associated antigens and linear determinants
For a T-cell to work, the antigen would need the ___ complex
T/F t-cell and b-cells recognize protein antigens only
false, b cell also does Nucleic acids, chemicals, etc
What cells express MHC class I?
all nucleated cells
What cells express MHC II?
T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells of the thymus.