A lateral view is an additional type of mammography view used for diagnostic mammograms. A lateromedial view means the x-ray beam is aimed to what aspect?
Toward the inner chest: The lateral view is an additional view used in a large majority of diagnostic mammograms. They can be performed as a mediolateral (ML) view or a lateromedial (LM) view. A lateromedial view indicates that the x-ray beam originates laterally or on the outer portions of the breast and is projected medially or toward the inner aspects of the breasts.
Which of the following is an example of ductal carcinoma?
Comedo: Ductal carcinoma originates in the ducts that are responsible for carrying milk to the nipple of the breast. The types of ductal carcinoma include intraductal, invasive, comedo, medullary, mucinous, inflammatory, papillary, scirrhous, and tubular. The extralobular terminal duct is the origin or site for ductal carcinoma. (not these answers: epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliosis, papillomatosis)
Pectus excavatum is an anatomical anomaly that requires special treatment with regard to mammography. Pectus excavatum is also known as which of the following?
Sunken chest: Kyphosis is known as humped back. Pectus excavatum is sunken chest. Pectus carinatum is barrel chest or pigeon breast. Thin breast is pancake breast.
The image quality phantom test should be performed how often?
At least once per week. :The image quality phantom test should be performed at least once per week. It verifies that everything is working together properly, that image quality standards have been met, and that results performed at that facility provide accurate diagnostic information.
Proper positioning helps eliminate which of the following?
The majority of mammogram artifacts: Breast positioning affects the results of the mammography image. Improper patient positioning can cause inconclusive results. Position of the breast, optimum exposure, and compression all affect the mammogram image. Proper positioning helps eliminate the majority of mammogram artifacts, and ensures the maximum amount of breast tissue is imaged. Adequate compression is used to help separate overlapping structures. Optimal positioning is operator dependent.
Which of the following would have the largest number of pixels?
Laser film: The laser film would have the largest number of pixels. The workstation monitor would have the least number of pixels.
Ideally, breast compression is maximized when?
Accompanied by a thorough explanation to increase patient cooperation and the patient recognizes the advantage of compression in reducing radiation dose. Often the patient is able to tolerate more compression if the need for the compression is explained. Knowledge of the procedure generally alleviates fears, especially fear of the unknown. Any explanation should include a statement on how compression will reduce the radiation dose to help alleviate fears of radiation dangers.
The radiation doses of digital mammography exposures tend to be what percent lower than those of screen film mammography (SFM)?
20 - 30%: Radiation doses from digital mammography exposures tend to be 20% to 30% lower than those from SFM. In addition, doses for thinner breasts are lower than doses for thicker breasts.
Of the following, which would CAD stand for?
Computer-Assisted Detection: The abbreviation CAD stands for Computer-Assisted Detection. This is used to accurately interpret mammographic images that helps to detect the presence of breast cancer.
Mammography radiology is regulated by the FDA's MQSA guidance. MQSA stands for which of the following?
Mammography Quality Standards Act: The Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) was enacted by United States Congress to regulate the quality of care in the field of mammography. MQSA requires mammography facilities to meet uniform quality standards and become a safe and 'exemplary' facility for mammogram patients. The MQSA includes a list of standards and procedures a facility must follow to be recognized and accredited.