MCR: Intro to Infectious Disease

The process of a microorganism invading a more complex host organism and impairing normal function of the host

Infection

Some infections can present with PT problems, so we help by:

Infectious ControlTreating diseases with impairmentsMedical screening

single celled organism with cell walls that can grow independently and by synthesizing proteins

Bacteria

How are bacteria classified?

classified into Gram +, -, Cocci +,-, Acid Fast Bacilli, Spirochetes

subcellular organism made of RNA or DNA and covered in proteins

Viruses

Covid is a duplication of

RNA/DNA

Unicellular to filamentous organisms, have filamentous outgrowth surrounded by cell wall

Fungus

#NAME?

Fungus

Single cell unit or group of non-differential cells loosely held together by cell membrane

Parasites

Have NucleusDo NOT have cell wall

Parasites

Range in size, up to large round/flat worms or tiny as scabies

Parasites

What type of bacteria?Escherichia coli (e-coli) (UTI), pseudomonas (All parts of body), Hemophilus influenzae (NOT flu)

Gram negative bacilli

What type of bacteria?Borrelia burgdorferi/lyme disease

Spirochetes

If found Late and untreated, can build spirochetes in area

lyme disease

What type of bacteria?Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, Clostridium difficile colitis (C-diff)

Gram Positive Cocci

What type of bacteria?Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)

Acid Fast Bacilli

Bacteria: PneumoniaCaused by:

Streptococcus pneumoniaStaphylococcus aureusKlebsiellaPseudomonas

smelly infection, common in nursing home/hospital and affects people with underlying conditions

Pseudomonas

Group B", leading cause of death b/c Sepsis, 100,000 worldwide

Streptococcus pneumonia

Two Types of Acquired Bacteria: Pneumonia

#NAME?

Bacteria: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)Caused by:

Escherichia coli (E-coli)KlebsiellaEnterbacter (Gut)PseudomonasEnterococcus

Bacteria: Bacteremia (inf. of blood)Caused by:

Streptococcus pneumoniaeStreptococcus (Group B) Staphylococcus AureusEscherichia coli (E-coli)

Infection of Blood

bacteremia

Are there vaccines for?Streptococcus pneumoniaeStreptococcus (Group B) Staphylococcus AureusEscherichia coli (E-coli)

Yes

Infection of the CNS

Bacterial Meningitis

Bacteria: Bacterial Meningitis (Inf. of CNS) Caused by:

Streptococcus pneumoniaeStreptococcus (Group B)Neisseria meningitidis/meningococcalHemophilus influenzae

Bacteria: Bacterial Enteritis (Gut)Caused by:

SalmonellaShigellaCampylobacterToxic Escherichia coli

poultry, eggs, person to person

Salmonella

contaminated water, flies, person to person

Shigella

Fecal contamination from livestock

Campylobacter

undercooked meat, travelers diarrhea

Toxic Escherichia coli (e-coli)

Bacteria: Cellulitis (Inf. of skin)Caused by:

Streptococcal

Bacteria: Osteomyelitis (Inf. of bone/muscle)Caused by:

Staphylococcus aureus

Infection of the skin Hint(Thighs)

cellulitis

Infection of bone and muscle

Osteomyelitis

Issue for individuals w/antibiotic res. Staph

Osteomyelitis

Flesh eating disease

Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis

Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis (Flesh eating disease)Caused by:

Streptococcus

Skin/Wound Infections:Caused by:

Staphylococcus aureus

Components of this diseaseNeurologicMusculoskeletalCardiac

Bacteria: Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

Bacteria Tuberculosis:Caused by:

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB)

Infection of lungsAffects immunocompromised indiv.

Tuberculosis

Antibiotic- Resistant Organisms

MRSAVREC-DiffKlebsiella Pneumoniae

Causes Osteomyelitis, hard to treat

MRSA

GI bacteria

VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci)

Resistant to Vancomycin (Broad Spectrum Antibiotic)

VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci)

Fecal transplantsNot treatable

C-diff (Clostridium difficile colitis)

Resistant to 6-9 classes"Poop pills

C-diff (Clostridium difficile colitis)

Hospital acquired pneumonia

Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP)

What syndrome?Exhausted 6+ monthsCombination of things within bodySystemicInflammatory, Diet

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

What virus?Fever, chills, malaise, myalgia (muscle pain), headache nasal congestion, sore throat, nonproductive cough

Influenza Virus

Complications: Pneumonia (life threatening)

Influenza Virus

Side effect of Vaccine is Guillain- Barre Syndrome

Influenza vaccine

Tinea Pedis

Athletes foot

Candida

Yeast Infection

Tinea

ringworm

Tinea Pedis Candida AspergillusTinea Are examples of

Fungus

#NAME?

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii parasite)

attach to skin, easy to pass

Scabies

#NAME?

Malaria (Plasmodium)

Babesia or Theileria microti

Babesiosis

helminthiasis

HookWorm

cestodes

Tapeworms

nematodes

Roundworms

trematodes

Flukes

Overwhelming and life threatening systemic response to an infection due to bacteria, virus, fungal, or parasitic infection

Sepsis

Can cause tissue damage, organ failure, deathMore than 1 organ involved

Sepsis

Unrecognized sepsis increases mortality ___% with every hour in delay of treatment

8%

SIRS

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)Temp > or < ?

Temp >100.4F or <96.8F

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)WBC> or < ?Bands > ____%

WBC >12, <4 or Bands >10%

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)RR > or PaCO2 < ?

RR >20 or PaCO2 <32

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)HR > ?

90

Signs and Symptoms of Infectious Disease (4)

FeverMalaiseHeadacheTachycardia

Microorganism physical contact via skin-skin, mucus membrane-mucus membrane, needle stick, unprotected sex, open wound, vaginal secretions. Blood-borne

Direct Contact

Hepatitis B and C are transmitted by what type of contact

Direct contact

Transmission:Inanimate object such as phone, hospital bed

Indirect Contact

Live on surfaces about 3 days

Indirect Contact

-<5 microns in diameter- Particles in air can be in air for hours, and up to 6ft

Airborne

Transmission:- >5 microns in diameter- In air briefly, up to 3ft

Droplet

Transmission:- Transmission from affected organism- Food, water, medications, IV fluid

Vehicle

Hepatitis A Lyme Disease, malaria from mosquitoTransmission:

Vehicle

modes of transportation

Contact (Direct, Indirect)AirborneDropletVehicleVector

Gardisil is the vaccine for what common virus?

HPV

Treat bacterial infections

Antibiotics

treat viral infections

antivirals

Treat fungal infections

Antifungals

Treat parasites

Antiparasitic drugs

Penicillin (Penicillin VK), Doxycycline (Doxy), Tobramycin (Tobrex)These are ___ that treat ____

Antibiotics that treat bacterial infections

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zidovudine (Retrovir)These are ___ that treat ____

Antivirals that treat viral infections

Clotrimazole (Canesten)This is__ that treats ____

Antifungal, that treats fungal infections

Antimalarial drugs = Metronidazole (Flagyl) plus Tetracycline (Sumycin)This is__ that treats ____

Antimalarial drug that treats parasites

Antiparasitic drugs are a mixture of what

Anti Parasitic + Antibiotic

Zole means

Fungal