Biology CH. 25, 26, 30 and 32

(Land) Terrestrial environment: Advantages

-Sunlight is abundant-Carbon dioxide is abundant-No competitors for resources-No predators

(Land) Terrestrial environment: Disadvantages

-Threat of desiccation (drying out)-UV rays-No structural support at first-Reproduction was water dependent (carried the gametes through the water)-Zygote is water-dependent

5 Adaptions to terrestrial life

1. Alteration of generations life cycle2. Sporopollenin3. Apical meristem in roots and shoots4. Waxy cuticle on leaves on stem5. Lignin in vascular tissues

Is the stage that produces spores hapliod or diploid?

diploid (2n)

Gametophyte stage: haploid or diploid?

Haploid

Gametophyte stage and Sporophyte stage: unicellular or multicellular?

Multicellular

What is the main goal of the gametophyte stage?

To produce gametes via mitosis

Sporophyte stage: haploid or diploid?

Diploid

What is the main goal of the sporophyte stage?

Produces spores via meiosis

What happens in Alternation of generations?

The plant alternates between the two stages (gametophyte and sporophyte stage) throughout it's life cycle

What does sporophyte produce to help produce spores?

Sporangia(um)

What are sporopollenin?

Thick cell walls that spores have to help prevent water from leaving the spore so it won't dry out

What two types of spores are in plants?

-Homosporous-Heterospores

What is a monoecious gametophye?

A gametophyte that has both male and female on the same plant

What are homosporous plants?

Plants that produce only one type of spore (monoecious gametophytes)[Are found in most plants]

What are heterosporous plants?

Plants that produce two different types of spores -Microspores (male)-Megaspores (female)

A male gametophyte will make what kind of gametangium?

-Antheridum

A female gametophyte will make what type of gametangium?

-Archegonium

What is the group name for non vascular seedless plants?

Bryophytes

Nonvascular means that:

-There are no tracheids-They have no vascular tissue to transport water from their roots to their stems

What stage do bryophytes have?

Dominant Gametophyte (n) stage

What are the three types of nonvascular seedless plants?

-Moss-Hornwort-Liverwort

Bryophyte structure:

-Nonvascular-No stems-Cannot transport water long distances-No true roots-No true leaves

Instead of leaves, bryophytes have:

Thallus'

Instead of roots, bryophytes have:

Rhizoids

What type of stage do vascular seedless plants have?

Dominant sporophyte stage

What type of tissue do vascular seedless plants have?

Vascular and conductive tissue

What are lignin?

Walls of xylem that are used for strength and support. (lets them grow tall)

What do vascular seedless plants have for roots and stems?

-Xylem (takes water up from roots)-Phloem (brings nutrients down from the leaves)

What are microphylls'?

Small unbranches leaves with a singular vein

What are megaphylls'?

Larger leaf with branched vascular network

What are sporophylls'?

Leaves that are modified to produce spores

What are two types of vascular seedless plants?

Lycopodiophyta and monilophytes

Which phase is dominant in seed plants?

Sporophyte phase

Are all vascular plants heterosporous or homosporous?

Heterosporous

What two types of spores do seed plants have?

-Megaspores (seeds) [female gametophyte]-Microspores (pollen) [male gametophyte]

What two types of seed plants are there?

-Gymnosperms ("naked seed")-Angiosperms ("seed in a vessel")

What are tracheids?

Dominant cell type in gymnosperms

What are the 4 types of gymnosperms?

-Conifers-Cycads-Gingkophytes-Gnetophytes

Are conifers sporo or gameto?

Sporophytes

Are conifers heterosporous or homosporous?

Heterosporous

The seed at the end of conifer fertilization contains 3 generations of what tissue?

-Embryo tissue [which germinates to the new sporophyte]-Nutritive tissue [from the female gametophyte]-Seed coat from the sporophyte

What are two novel adaptations of angiosperms?

-Flowers -Fruit

How are angiosperms pollinated?

-Wind-Insects-Mammals

What is the angiosperms dominant tissue?

Xylem tissue

What cells in angiosperm are in xylem cells?

Vessel cells

What are sepals?

Leaves at the bottom of a flower

What is the female sex organ called for angiosperm flowers?

Gynoecium (carpel)

What is the male sex organ called for angiosperm flowers?

Androecium (stamen)

What do perfect flowers have?

-Carpel and stamen-Are monoecious

What do imperfect flowers have?

-Either carpel or stamen-Are dioecious

What is the gynoecium (carpal)?

The innermost part of the flower where the egg will form

What are the androecium comprised of?

-Filament (the stalk that holds the anther)-Anther

Are angiosperm gametophytes or sporophyes? Homo or heter?

Sporophyes and heterosporous

Where are megasporangia located in angiosperm?

The ovule

What happens in double fertilization to a angiosperm?

When the egg is fertilized by a sperm and those 2 nuclei in that central cell are also fertilized by a sperm

What are leaf like structures called that form throughout an angiosperm?

Cotyledons (leaves)

How many cotyledons are in monocots and give examples.

-One cotyledon-Grasses, palms, sugar plants

How many cotyledons are in eudicots and give examples.

-Two cotyledon-Everything else

What are the three major groups of angiosperms?

-Basal angiosperms-Monocots-Eudicots

Monocot flowers are in a symmetry of what?

3 or 6-3 petals, 3 sepals-6 petals, 6 sepals

Leaf venation is what along the length of the leaf? (angiosperm)

Parrallel

Eudicot flowers are in a symmetry of what?

4 or 5-4 petals, 4 sepals-5 petals 5 sepals-Or a combination of 4 and 5

Leaf ventation is what in Eudicots?

Networked

In a seedless plant, a fertilized egg will develop into a...

Sporophyte

Which trait was the most important in enabling first plants to move onto land?

Development of sporopollenin to prevent desiccation of zygote

The primary growth of a plant adds__________ and the secondary growth adds ____________.

Height and girth

Cell division in the root occurs in the..

Apical Meristem

In pine trees, the embryo develops within the __________.

Female gametophyte

The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms come from the...

Presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule

What is unique to flowering plants?

Double fertilization

In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these sperm do?

One fertilizes an egg, the other combines with two polar nuclei which develop into the endosperm

What two structures have all three tissue types? (dermal tissue, vascular tissue, ground tissue)

Roots and Leaves

Even thought nonvascular seedless plants and vascular seedless plants have the same life cycle what is the only different thing from them?

Vascular seedless plants have a dominant stage of sporophytes (2n)

The cells within pollen grains are _________________ and together comprise the _____________________.

-Hapliod-Male gametophyte

What is located in the scalelike structures packed densely in pollen cones?

Sporangia

Each pollen grain of a gymnosperm contains a...

Male gametophyte

In ovulate cones, megasporocytes undergo ___________ and produce ____________ megaspores.

-Meiosis-Haploid

The diploid generation of the plant cycle always...

Produces spores

During pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the __________ to the __________.

-Anther -Stigma

The portion of a flower that receives the pollen is the __________.

Stigma

What is a stigma?

The receptive tip of the carpal in the gynoecium of a flower

Which of the following best describes the function of fruits?

Protection and dispersal of seeds

A plant is said to be cross-pollinated if __________.

Pollen grains are transfer to a flower on a different plant

In angiosperms, the pollen tube releases two sperm cells into the embryo sac. The result of this is the __________.

Union of one sperm nucleus with the egg nucleus and of the other sperm nucleus with two nuclei of the central cell, forming a triploid nucleus called the endosperm

Of the following, which is a difference in how reproduction occurs in gymnosperms compared to angiosperms?

Only the sperm of angiosperms combine with two central cell nuclei to form triploid endosperm.

In angiosperms, the triploid nucleus of the embryo sac develops into the __________.

Endosperm

Which of the following lists of features characterizes eudicots?

Two cotyledons, netlike veins, taproot usually present

Leaves occur at intervals along the plant stem. What is the region where a leaf is attached to the stem?

-Node

A region of dividing cells in a plant is called a __________.

Meristem

Which example below is the site of primary growth that results in the plant's increasing in height?

Apical meristems

Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in specialized __________ cells called the __________.

-Parenchyma-Mesophyll

A cross section of a plant part exposes epidermis, a thick cortex, and a central cylinder of xylem and phloem. This part is a __________.

Root

Which of the following correctly describes a feature unique to monocot stems?

Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem.

In most leaves, chloroplast-containing cells are most closely compacted in the __________.

Palisade mesophyll

Guard cells __________.

Are responsible for gas exchange through the stomata

In the alternation of generations in plants, _____________.

The gametes are produced by the gametophyte through mitosis and cellular differentiation

Which association is correct?

Stamens, development of filament and anther

Which two structures of a flower bear sporangia?

Ovules and anthers

A generative cell and a tube cell originate when __________.

A microspore undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis

What is the purpose of synergids in an ovule?

Synergids help to attract and guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac.

In an environment that is very stable, with reliable moisture and temperature, what type of reproduction would be most advantageous for a plant and why?

Asexual reproduction, because it ensures that the gene combinations that have proven to adapt the plant well to the environment will be passed on to the next generation

Which of the following accurately describes double fertilization in angiosperms?

One sperm fuses the egg, one sperm fuses with the polar nuclei

Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?

Within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower

With respect to angiosperms, which of the following is incorrectly paired with its chromosome count?

megaspore—2n (it is hapliod)

A life cycle that exhibits alternation of generations has the following:

Multicellular haploid organisms and multicellular diploid organisms

In plants, the ________ produces haploid gametes (eggs and sperm) by mitosis, whereas the ________ produces haploid spores by meiosis.

-Gametophyte-Sporophyte

In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis?

Haploid spores

Two unique reproductive adaptations of angiosperms are...

Flowers and fruits

Alternation of generations _________.

Is distinguished by haploid and diploid stages that are both multicellular

The development of the _______ prevents plants from drying out and protects them from microbes.

Cuticle

The gametophyte stage of the plant life cycle is most conspicuous in ________.

Mosses

When you see a green, "leafy" moss, you are looking at the ________.

Gametophyte generation

Which of the following produces eggs and sperm?

Moss gametophytes

Fertilization in moss occurs when sperm swim from a(n) _______ and down the neck of a(n) ________.

-Antheridium-Archegonium

The gametophyte generation of a moss _______.

Is haploid

In which bryophyte structure specifically does a zygote develop into an embryo?

Stomata

In the life cycle of a fern, the multicellular male gametangium (the sex organ that produces sperm cells) is called a(n) ____________.

Antheridium

In the life cycle of ferns, the multicellular female gametangium (the sex organ contains an egg) is called a(n) ____________.

Archegonium

What is the evolutionary significance of megaphylls?

They increase the surface area for photosynthesis.

The "dots" on the underside of a fern frond are spore cases; therefore, what is true of the plant to which the frond belongs?

It is a sporophyte

To examine meiosis in ferns, you would study _______.

The sporangia

Vascular tissues of plants include _________.

Xylem for conducting water and minerals, and phloem for conducting dissolved organic molecules

Heterosporous plants produce _________.

Megaspores that develop into female gametophytes and microspores that develop into male gametophytes

In sporophyte ferns, the leaves are _________.

Megaphylls