Chapter 7: deformation

deformation

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Plate tectonic forces

1. compressive forces (convergent)2. tensional forces (divergent)3. shearing forces (transform)

compressive forces

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faults

-cracks in the earth's crust along which there is movement-formed when rocks are subjected to compressional, tensional, or shearing forces

brittle deformation

rock breaks

ductile deformation

rock bends or flows

syncline

A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust.

Anticline

an upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust

limbs

two sides of a fold

axial plane

is an imaginary surface that divides the fold into half -- with one limb on either side of the plane

dip-slip fault

normal fault and reverse fault

normal fault

A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust. (tensional + divergent)

reverse fault

a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust (Compressional + convergent)

strike-slip fault

a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion. (shearing)-Lef-lateral and right-lateral

The modification of rocks through folding and faulting is

deformation

Faults are fractures that can show

both vertical and horizontal movements

A fold is divided into two equal halves by the:

axial plane