Chapter 5: Sedimentation

Sedimentary rocks

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Why are sedimentary rocks important?

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weathering

the processes at or near the earth's surface that cause the rocks and minerals to break down.

Physical weathering

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Chemical weathering

the minerals in a rock are chemically altered or dissolvedex: dissolving limestone by rainwater

erosion

the process of removing earth materials from their original sites by gravity, wind, water, and ice.

Classification of sediments

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Silliclastic sediments

form by weathering processes which break down rocks into particles

chemical sediments

form from minerals that precipitate in water

biological sediments

form from the remain of animals and plants.

transportation

by wind, water, and ice

deposition

settling down or dropping of sediment particles.

Surface Processes

Weathering, erosion, transport, deposition, burial, diagenesis/lithification

sedimentary environments

areas of sediment deposition characterized by a particular combination of climate conditions and physical, chemical, and biological processes.

alluvial

deposits sediment that is coarse where currents are rapid and finer sediment where current is slack.

delta

body of sediment deposited when a river flows into standing water.

cross-bedding

consists of beds deposited by wind or water and inclined at angles as much as 35 degrees from the horizontal