Weather and Climate Study Guide

The _______ is a layer of gases that surround Earth.


Describe the composition of the atmosphere. (percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and other gases)

Nitrogen 78%Oxygen 21%Other Gases 1%

The _____________ layer is important because it help block harmful rays from the sun which can cause sun burn and skin cancer.


_____________, ______________ air has the most pressure (high) and ___________, ___________ air has the least pressure (low).

Warm, Humid and Cold, Dry

What is humidity and what instrument is used to measure humidity? What is dew point?

A measure of the amount of H2O vapior in the air. Psychron. decreases

As altitude increase, pressure ____________.


Heat transfer between two substances that are in direct contact is called ____________.


Heat from a fireplace reaches you by _______ as it moves through the air.


Most of the heating of the Earth's surface comes from which type of energy from the sun?

Solar radiation

______ breezes occur because land heats up faster than water.


_______ breezes occur because water retains (keeps) heat longer than land


Earth's rotation makes winds and surface currents seem to curve. This is called the _______ .

Coriolis Effect

Bands of high speed winds traveling from west to east at high altitude (about 10 km above the Earth's surface) are known as _______ _________.

Jet Stream

MOST weather occurs in which atmospheric layer of the Earth?


What are the three ways in which heat is transferred in the atmosphere? List and describe the 3 ways.


Most of Earth's surface is heated by which type of energy from the sun?

Electromagnetic radiation (UV Radiation)

What type of clouds produce thunderstorms?


Draw a quick sketch of a land breeze and a sea breeze


Label what is happening within each of the convection currents. Do they occur during the night or day?


An air mass is a large body of air that has the same pressure, ______________ and ______________________ throughout

Temperature, humidity

An air mass that forms over Mexico would be called

Continental Tropical

An air mass that forms over central Canada would be called ....

Continental Polar

Air masses that form over the ocean near the equator would be called....

Maritime Tropical

To be classified as a hurricane, winds must reach a speed of ____________.

119 km/h

If a thunderstorm has strong updrafts, this can cause what type of precipitation?


Why do most tornadoes form near the great plain states?

Because continental polar air masses meet with maritime tropical air masses here

Describe the eye of a hurricane.


Tornadoes usually occur during the ____________ and _____________

Spring and Summer

Hurricane season is begins in _________________ and ends in ___________ because the ocean water takes a long time to heat up and then cool down.

June, November

In order for a hurricane to form you must have _____________ ocean water, and a _________ pressure system.

Warm, Low

Most of the damage caused from hurricanes is caused by the ________________ __________________ (which causes flooding inland).

Storm surge

What is the difference between weather and climate?

Weather: The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place. Climate: The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and clouds

After a cold front with high pressure passes the weather will be ___________ and ____________

Cooler and Dryer

After a warm front with low pressure passes the weather will be _____________ and more ______________.

Warmer, Humid

The ______________ side of a mountain receives more precipitation while the _______________ side of a mountain is very dry (desert-like) What is this called? ___________ _____________

Windward, Leeward

What happens to weather conditions as the air pressure decreases? and Increases?

Decreases =WorsenIncreases =Improve

What factors can affect the climate of a region?

Altitude, Latitude, City/Rural, Inland/Coastal

What are the two MAIN weather measurements used to determine and report a region's climate?

Temperature, Humidity

What do all storms have in common in their formation?

Low Pressure