Chapter 32

Complementary therapies:

Are therapies used in addition to conventional treatment recommended by the patient's provider

Alternative therapies:

Include the same interventions as complementary but frequently become the primary treatment that replaces allopathic medical care

Explain the cascade of changes that are associated with the stress response

Is associated with increased heart and respiratory rates, tightened muscles, an increased metabolic heart rate, a general sense of fear, nervousness, irritability, and a negative mood

The relaxation response is:

The state of generalized decreased cognitive, physiological, or behavioral arousal

Progressive relaxation training helps to:

Teach the individual how to effectively rest and reduce tension in the body

The goal of passive relaxation is:

To still the mind and body intentionally without the need to tighten and relax any particular body part

The outcome of relaxation therapy is:

Lower the heart rate and blood pressure, decreased muscle tensions, improved sense of well-being, and reduced symptoms of distress

Identify the limitations of relaxation therapy

During the first few months when the person is learning to focus on body sensations and tensions, there is increased sensitivity in detecting muscle tension Occasionally, intensification of symptoms or the development of new symptoms can occur

Meditation is:

Any activity that limits stimulus input by directing attention to a single unchanging or repetitive stimulus

Identify the indications for the use of meditation

Has been used to successfully reduce hypertensive risksReduce relapses in alcohol treatment programs Reduce depression, anxiety, and distress in cancer patientsBenefit people with posttraumatic stress disorders and chronic pain

Imagery is:

A group of visualization techniques that uses the conscious mind to create mental images to stimulate physical changes in the body, improve perceived well-being, or enhance self-awareness

Creative visualization is:

One form of self-directed imagery that is based on the principle of body-mind connectivity

Identify the clinical applications of imagery

Can be helpful in controlling or relieving pain, decreasing nightmares and improving sleep, and treating chronic diseases

Biofeedback is:

A mind-body technique that uses instruments to teach self-regulation and voluntary self-control over specific physiological responses

Identify some clinical applications for the use of biofeedback

Can be useful in treating headaches, smoking cessation, strokes, attention deficit hyperactivity, epilepsy, and a variety of gastrointestinal and urinary tract disorders

Identify the limitations of biofeedback

Repressed emotions or feelings are sometimes uncovered during biofeedback, and the patient may have difficulty coping

Describe the clinical applications of acupuncture

Can be used for low back pain, myofascial pain, headaches, sciatica, shoulder pain, tennis elbow, osteoarthritis, whiplash, and musculoskeletal sprains

Identify the limitations of acupuncture

Inadequately sterilized needles can cause infectionsOther limitations are broken needles, puncture of internal organ, bleeding, fainting, seizures, and post-treatment drowsiness

Acupuncture: Qi

The vital energy of the body

Acupuncture: Meridians

Channels of energy that run in regular patterns through the body and over its surface

Acupuncture: Acupoints

Holes through

Therapeutic touch: Centering

The process whereby the practioner becomes aware and fully present during the entire treatment

Therapeutic touch: Assessment

The practitioner moves the hands in a rhythmic and symmetric movement from head to toe, noticing the quality of energy flow

Therapeutic touch: Unruffling

Facilitates the symmetrical and rhythmic flow of energy through the body

Therapeutic touch: Treatment

Directs and balances the energy, attempting to rebalance the energy flow

Therapeutic touch: Evaluation

The practitioner reassess the energy field

Identify the clinical applications of therapeutic touch

Used in treatment of pain in adults and children, dementia, trauma, and anxiety

Identify the limitations of therapeutic touch

Contraindicated in persons who are sensitive to human interaction and touch and who have a sensitivity to energy repatterning

The goal of chiropractic therapy is:

To normalize the relationship between the structure and function of the spinal cord by a series of manipulations

Identify the clinical application of chiropractic therapy

May improve pain and disability in the short term and pain in the medium term for acute and subacute low back pain as well as joint pain caused by osteoarthritisIt may enhance the effects of conventional treatments in pediatric asthma, headaches, dysmenorrhea, vertigo, tinnitus, and visual disorders

Identify the limitations of chiropractic therapy

Include acute myelopathy, fractures, dislocations, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis

What is the most important concept of Traditional Chinese medicine?

Yin and yangWhich represent opposing yet complementary phenomena that exists in a state of dynamic equilibrium

Identify the clinical applications of herbal therapy

Can be used for urinary tract infections, sleep and relaxation, mild gastrointestinal disturbances, and premenstrual symptoms

Identify the limitations for herbal therapy

Include contamination with other chemicals or herbs, toxic agents, a variety of standards used from one company to another

Explain what the integrative medicine approach is

A multiple-practitioner treatment groupA pluralistic complementary health care system It is consistent with the holistic approach nurses learn to practice

Dietary supplements

Defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 and used to supplement dietary/nutritional intake by mouth Contain one or more dietary ingredients, including vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanical products

Herbal medicines

Plant-based therapies used in whole systems of medicine or as individual preparations by allopathic providers and consumers for specific symptoms or issues

Macrobiotic diet

Predominantly a vegan diet (no animal products except fish) Initially used in the management of a variety of cancers Emphasis placed on whole cereal grains, vegetables, and unprocessed foods

Mycotherapies

Fungi-based (mushrooms) products

Orthomolecular medicine (megavitamin)

Increased intake of nutrients such as vitamin C and beta-carotene Treats cancer, schizophrenia, autism, and certain chronic diseases such as hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease

Probiotics

Live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gastrointestinal system Also called "good bacteria

The "Zone

Dietary program that requires eating protein, carbohydrates, and fat in a 30:40:30 ratio: 30% of calories from protein, 40% calories from carbohydrates, 30% calories from fat Used to balance insulin and other hormones for optimal health

Healing touch

Biofield therapy Uses gentle touch directly on or close to body to influence and support the human energy system and bring balance to the whole body (physical, spiritual, emotional, and mental) A former educational and certification system provides credentials for practitioners

Reiki therapy

Biofield therapy derived from ancient Buddhist rituals Practitioner places hands on or above a body area and transfers "universal life energy", provides strength, harmony and balance to treat a patient's health disturbances

Therapeutic touch

Biofield therapy involving direction of a practitioner's balanced energies in an intentional manner toward those of a patient Practitioner's hands lay on or close to a patient's body

Magnet therapy

Bioelectromagnetic therapy Devices (magnets) applied to the body surface, producing a measureable magnetic field Used primarily to alleviate pain associated with musculoskeletal injuries or disorders

Acupressure

Applying digital pressure in a specified way on designated points on the body to relieve pain, produce analgesia, or regulate a body function

Chiropractic medicine

Manipulating the spinal column Includes physiotherapy and diet therapy

Craniosacral therapy

Assessing the craniosacral motion for rate, amplitude, symmetry, and quality and attuning/aligning the spinal column, cerebrospinal fluid, and rhythmic processes releasing restrictions or abnormal barriers to motion

Massage therapy

Manipulating soft tissue through stroking, rubbing, or kneading to increase circulation, improve muscle tone, and provide relaxation

Simple touch

Touching the patient in appropriate and gentle ways to make connection, display acceptance, and give appreciation

Acupuncture

Traditional Chinese method of producing analgesia or altering the function of a body system by inserting thin needles along a series of lines or channels, called meridians Direct needle manipulation of energetic meridians influences deeper internal organs by redirecting qi

Art therapy

Use of art to reconcile emotional conflicts, foster self-awareness, and express patients' unspoken and frequently unconscious concerns about their disease

Biofeedback

Process providing a person with visual or auditory information about autonomic physiological functions of the body such as muscle tension, skin temperature, and brain wave activity through the use of instruments

Breathwork

Using a variety of breathing patterns to relax, invigorate, or open emotional channels

Guided imagery

Concentrating on an image or series of images to treat pathological conditions

Healing intention (prayer)

Variety of techniques used in multiple cultures that incorporate caring, compassion, love, or empathy with the target of prayer

Meditation

Self-directed practice for relaxing the body and calming the mind using focused rhythmic breathing

Music therapy

Using music to address physical, psychological, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with disabilities and illnesses Improves physical movement and/or communication, develops emotional expression, evokes memories, and distracts people who are in pain

Psychotherapy

Treatment of emotional and mental disorders by psychological techniques

Tai chi

Incorporating breath, movement, and meditation to cleanse, strengthen, and circulate vital life energy and blood Stimulates the immune system and maintain external and internal balance

Yoga

Focuses on body musculature, posture, breathing mechanisms, and consciousness Goal is attainment of physical and mental well-being through mastery of body achieved through exercise, holding or postures, proper breathing, and meditation

Dance therapy

Intimate and powerful medium because it is a direct expression of the mind and body Treats persons with social, emotional, cognitive, or physical problems

Feldenkrais method

Alternative therapy based on establishment of good self-image through awareness and correction of body movements Integrates the understanding of the physics of body movement pattern with the awareness of the way people learn to move, behave, and interact

Pilates

Method of body movement used to strengthen, lengthen, and improve the voluntary control of muscles and muscle groups, especially those used for posture and core strengthening Awareness of breathing and precise movements are integral components

Ayurvedic medicine

One of the oldest systems of medicine practiced in India since the first century A.D. Ancient Sanscrit books are considered the main texts on Ayurveda medicine (Caraka Samhita and Sushruta and Samhita) There are eight branches of Ayurvedic medicine, including internal medicine: surgery, treatment of head and neck disease, gynecology, obstetrics, and pediatrics, toxicology, psychiatry, elder care and rejuvenation, and sexual vitality Treatments balance the doshas using a combination of dietary and lifestyle changes, herbal remedies and purgatives, massage, meditation, and exercise

Homeopathic medicine

Developed in Germany and practiced in the US since the mid-1800s It is a system of medical treatments based on the theory that certain diseases can be cured by giving small, highly diluted doses of substances that in a healthy person would produce symptoms like those of the disease Prescribed substances called "remedies" are made from naturally occurring plant, animal, or mineral substances and are used to stimulate the vital force of the body so it can heal itself

Latin American traditional healing

Curanderismo is a Latin American traditional healing system that includes a humoral mode for classifying food, activity, drugs, and illnesses and a series of folk illnesses The goal is to create a balance between the patient and his or her environment, thereby sustaining health

Native American traditional healing

Tribal traditions are individualistic, but similarities across traditions include the use of sweating and purging, herbal remedies, and ceremonies in which a shaman (a spiritual healer) makes contact with spirits to ask their direction in bringing healing to people to promote wholeness and healing

Naturopathic medicine

A system of therapeutics focused on treating the whole person and promoting health and well-being rather than an individual disease Therapeutics include herbal medicine, nutritional supplementation, physical medicine, homeopathy, lifestyle counseling, and body-mind therapies with an orientation toward assisting the person's internal capacity for self-healing (vitalism)

Traditional Chinese medicine

An ancient healing tradition identified in the first century A.D. focused on balancing yin/yang energies It is a set of systematic techniques and methods, including acupuncture, herbal medicines, message, acupressure, moxibustion (use of heat from burning herbs), Qi gong (balancing energy flow though body movement), and cupping Fundamental concepts are from Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism