ap bio chapter 52

environmentalism vs. ecology

ecology provides scientific understanding of living things and their environment; environmentalism is more about conservation and preservation of life

Rachel Carson would have endorsed

the greatest liberty humans have taken is with nature

landscape ecology

the factors controlling the exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms among ecosystem patches

predation and competition

important biotic factors that can affect the structure and organization of biological communities

temperature

abiotic factor with greatest influence on the metabolic rates of plants and animals

lights in aquatic environments

water selectively reflects and absorbs certain wavelengths of light

deserts occur at the 30 degrees latitude because

descending air masses tend to be cool and dry

turnovers of water

autumn and spring; made possible by the density of water as seasonal temperatures change

deserts are located in places where air masses are usually

descending

cause of earth's seasons

tilt of earth's axis

reason polar regions are cooler than the equator is b/c

sunlight strikes the poles at a lower angle

seed dispersal rate

success with which plants extend their range northward following glacial retreat

species introduced to new geographic locations

can out compete and displace native species for biotic and abiotic resources

air circulation and precipitation patterns caused by

rising warm, moist air masses cool and release precipitation as they rise and then at high altitude, cool and sink back to the surface as dry air masses after moving north or south of the tropics

abyssal

lowest rates of photosynthesis

benthic zone

supports communities of organisms that feed largely of detritus

photic zone

most phytoplankton in a lake

pelagic biome

pelagic ocean photosynthetic activity is disproportionately low in relation to the size of the biome

coral animals

are a diverse group of cnidarians often forming mutualistic symbiotic relationships with dinoflagellate algae

important factor affecting the distribution of biomes is

climate

ecotone

area in which different terrestrial biomes grade into each other

convergent evolution

2 plant species live in the same biome but on different continents, not at all closely related they may appear quite similar b/c of:

both dependent upon periodic burning

chaparral and savanna

fire suppression by humans

can change the species composition within biological communities

able to supports many large animals despite receiving moderate amounts of rainfall

savanna

tropical grasslands with scattered trees are also known as

savannas

mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

chaparral

organisms most likely have adaptions enabling them to respond to different photoperiods

temperate forest

permafrost

reason trees are not found in the tundra