Water soluble vitamins. vs fat soluble vitamins?

Water - Vit B and C, disolve in water. typically bind to blood protein for transport.Fat - A,D,E K, bind to fats/chylomicrons. Low fat = impaired absorption.

Where can Vit E be found


What is vitamin bioavailability?

Bio: Extent to which body can absorb a nutrient

% of vitamins absorbed.

40-90% in small intestine

Provitamin/vitamin precursor?

Sometimes vitamins are absorbed in an inactive form. Compound that can be converted to a functioning vitamin

Is fresh food always best?

No. 3 reasons:-Frozen foods often frozen at peak of freshness to minimize nutrient loss-Canned goods last long, dont need refrigeration. Can be good in some situations-Fresh produce sometimes lower because theyre picked before maturity ,and spend time on shelf/fridges.

Ways vitamins in food can be damaged?

Exposure to light/oxygen, washed during prep or removed during cooking.

Controversy on food fortification?

Has reduced number of deaths and diseases like pellegra (vit b), folate (neural tube defects). Criticisms like nutrient toxicities, false sense of security about their healthiness of food.

6 steps to vitamin digestion

1) Chewing helps break down to release vitamins2) Digestion releases vitamin, some niacin absorbed.3) Gallbladder releases bile, helps emulsify fat which absorbs vitamins. Enzymes from pancreas aid in releasing vitamins4)Small intestine: Water soluble directly into blood. Depend on energy requiring transport systems, or bind to specific molecules. Fat soluble into micelles, mucosal cell, into chylomicron, to lymph before blood.5) Large intestine: Bacteria synthesize small amounts of vitamins e.g vit K, some are absorbed.


Non protein enzymes that bind to proteins to promote activity. Act as carriers of electrons, atoms, or chemical groups. All Vitamin B's are coenzymes.

Antioxdiant, purpose

Substance to neutralize reactive oxygen molecules, prevent cell damage.

To oxidize?

Steal electrons from

Oxidative damage

Caused when reactive oxygen molecules oxidize other compounds, change their structure and function.

Free radicals, purpose

Type of highly reactive atom or molecule that causes oxidative damage. Can oxidize DNA protein, carbs, or unsaturated fats

B vitamins involved in:C vitamins involved in:

Converting energy from C, F, P to ATP. not source of energy themselves.-Needed to synthesize connective tissue and to protect us from damage by oxidation.

Why must water soluble vitamins be consumed regularly.

Not stored to a great extent, so are regularly depleted.

Thiamin? Disease involved, and disease involved in alcoholics.

Vit B, Beriberi: Causes weakness, nerve degeneration, heart changes.Alcoholics: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Experience mental confusion/disturbances, psychosis and even coma.

T/F Thiamin is part of a coenzyme.

T: Glucose needs thiamine to convert pyruvate to Acetyl CoA to produce ATP.

List 3 other roles of thiamine:

-Synthesis of neurotransmitters:-Metabolism of other sugars/aminos, and synthesis of ribose (sugar found in riboucleic acid RNA){

Where can thiamin be consumedDefiicneny?

Bran layer of brown rice/other whole grains, abundant in pork, legumes, seeds.Affects nervous and cardiovascular system.PORK

Excessive consumption of riboflavin leads to:

Excess excreted in urine, turning it into a yellow. BUT, no harmful effects.

why is milk stored in cardboard or cloudy plastic containers?

Riboflavin is destroyed by light, opaque containers most effective.

Riboflavin RDA range for men/women?Deficiencies and problems?

1.1, 1.3, .Deficiency usually occurs with other deficiencies. injuries heal poorly. Ariboflavinosis: Skin, lining of eyes, mouth, tongue start cracking, flaking of skin around eyes, earlobes, sensitive to light.

Two coenzymes riboflavin forms, and other functions

FAD and FMN. act as electron carriers. Also helps convert other B vitamins into their active forms. Also indirectly,directly forms ATP.

Meat, and vegetable sources for riboflavin

Dairy products, liver, red meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, enriched bread/cereals/Vege: asparagus, broccoli, mushrooms, leafy greens like spinach.

Niacin, disease involvedSOURCES?

Pellegra: 3Ds" Dermatisis, diarrhea, dementia, and maybe death.Chicken, bread.

Describe scientific method of tracking down source of pellegra

Joseph goldberg: Oberseved that only children got disease, staff did not in hospitals. Hypothesis: Diet relatedExperiment: Continued diet experiments (RA, manipulation, etc), until niacin cured pelelgra. Theory: Pellegra is caused by niacin deficiency.

Biotin:PurposesDeficiencys, excess?

Part of enzyime in citric acid cycle, essential for energy production and glucose synthesis.Deficiencies are rare

Soruces of biotin.Eggs problem?

Cooked eggs, live, yogurt, nuts. fruit and meat poor sourcse. AI of 30 ug/day.Raw egg- has avidin that binds biotin, prevents absorption. Cooking denatures avidin.

Panthothenic acid:Functions and Deficiency, source?

Needed everywhere in body, Part of coenzyme CoA. Break down of CFP, synthesis neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, hemoglobin.found abundantly in food, deficiencies are rare.

Vitamin b6: F,S. D?

-Important for aminoacid/protein metabolish. Three forms: 3ps, coverted to coenzyme, needed in over 100 enzymes to metabolise C,F,P.S - Meat and fish, fortified foodsD: Poor skin growth, decrease immune function, skin lesions.

Folic acid?Neural tube defects?

Easily absorbed form of Folate.Abnormalities in brain from errors in preg development. Also Spina Bifida.

Folate: f s d?

F: important for neural tube, need Folate before pregnancy to ensure proper growth of brain and spine. Red blood cell development. D: RDA is 400. Can lead to heart disase. People most at risk are smokers, old age, drinkers, and pregnants/premature child.

Relationship between folate and vit b12?

B12 deficiency prevents folate from activiating. Folate supplements may mask b12 deficiency.

Vit b12: Functions and Def?

Production of ATP, homocysteine - methionine. Myelin coating.D: Demylination, paralysis or death.

Atrophic Gastritis:

Inflation of stomac lining, reduce secretion of stomach, bacteria, and maybe IF. Among old adults, leads to lack of absorption of b12

Pernicious Anemia? Intrinsic Factor?

Macrocytci anemia : Large, and not enough red blood cells. (cant carry oxygen well)Due to lack of IF:Protein in stomach needed for absorption of b12

B12 sources?

Only in meats.

B12 Digestion and absorption?

1) b12 bound to proteins in food2)acid, pepsin, cells release intrinsic factor3)Duodenum: IF binds to b12. 4) Ileum: IF binds to receptor cells for absorption. Unbinded b12 absorbed through passive diffusion5)B12 cynthesized in colon, cannot be absorbed.

Vit C: F,S,D

Ascorbic acid. Synthesizes protein collagen (glue of body).S: Citrus fruits, supps. D: scurvy; bleeding gums, joint pain, fatigue.E: diarrhea, toxic iron levels, kidney stone. cramps.

5 other uses of Vitamin C:

Synthesize:Bile Cartinine: Breakdown of fat.Neurotransmittershormonesact as antioxdant: Help immune function


synthesize acetycholine, S: Found in many foods. usually excess.E: Fishy body odour, sweat, reduced growth rate. Ul of 3.5g a day.

Retinoids and Cartenoids?

Chemical forms of preformed Vit A: Retinol, retina, retinoic acidCarotenoids: Color for carrots. natural pigments, some can be converted straight into Vit A in body.

How does Vit A maintain healthy eyes?

Helps reform rhodopsin - visual pigment, helps send nerve signals. Some retinal lost in sending nerve signal, replaced if theres Vit A in the system.

Vit A sources?Deficiencys?Excess?

E: Nausea, vomiting, headache. Hypercartonemia: Skin becomes yellow-orange due to excess. D: Epithelial tissue in eye - cell differentiation, leads to xerophathalmia, a Vit A disease. 3000UL

Functions and barriers to obtaining Vit D?

-Inactive until in liver and kidney. Helps maintain levels of calcium/phosphorus. -Gene expression.Barriers: Religious clothing, geographical location, protective winter clothing, sunscreen.

Source, and excess of Vit D?

Sunshine-made as a reaction. Liver, egg yolks, oily fish like salmon.Excess: Calcium deposits in urine, kidney stones/ Ul is 4000IU

Deficiency of Vit D? 2 problems

Rickets: Poor bone development from lack of calcium absorption.Osteomalacia: Loss of minerals from bone. Bone pain, muscle ache, increase in bone fracture.

Functions of Vit E?

Antioxidant that protects lipids from oxidizing and causing damage. Protects lung, red, white blood, nerve cell membranes. Can also defend cells from toxins and metals.

Deficiency and sources of Vit E?

Those cells break down, leads to hemolytic anemia. Adults might get demylineation.Sources: Nuts, seeds, plant oils.

How does Vit K help blood clotting? other use?excesss?

Used in formation of fibrin, which helps blood clotting.Prevents osteoporosis. Hemmorages. Excess can lead to anemia, and brain damage.

Risks and benefits of Herbal supplements? Why should you tell your doctor?

B: Doc free, relatively cheap."risk" = can be toxic, many have side effects.

3 suggestions before using vitamin supplments?

Why you need it, product costs, and reading labels.

3 important groups who should take supplments:

Pregnants: 400ug of folate to prevent neural tube problemsOlder: Possible atrophic gastritis, take more b12 Dieters/no diary: b12.


VisionCalcium/phosphorus absorptionAntioxidantBlood clotting