CJ 230 Midterm

Ecstasy (MDMA)

A "date rape" drug that can be found in an odorless, colorless liquid form or as a pill or white powder and that has psychological effects including confusion, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, drug craving and paranoia is called MDMA or

Ketamine

A "date rape" drug that is found in a white powder form and that can cause hallucinations, lost sense of time and identity, distorted perceptions of sight and sound, feeling out of control, impaired motor function, breathing problems, convulsions, vomitin

Multidisciplinary

A ____________ approach to case investigation involves using specialists in various fields from within a particular jurisdiction.

Rohypnol

A common "date rape" drug is

hesitation wounds

A common indicator of suicide using a knife is

how, when and where a criminal usually operates

A criminal's modus operandi is the details of

8 to 10 days in warm water and 2 to 3 weeks in cold water.

A dead body that sinks in water usually remains immersed for

an action, an event, a circumstance or an actual thing done.

A fact is

show up

A field identification is also called a

DNA

A genetic fingerprint is obtained from a suspect's

stolen or embezzled property

A judge may issue a search warrant if which of the following items are being sought by an officer?

can be adapted to any number of police personnel.

A lane search, or partitioning the area into lanes,

obtaining physical evidence legally, effectively interviewing witnesses, legally and effectively interrogating suspects, thoroughly developing leads and recording all details.

A logical process of investigation includes

immersive imaging

A major advance is the ability of computer software to stitch together digital photos of 180 degrees or more to create one 360-degree photo�a panoramic view of a crime scene that is interactive, allowing viewers, including jury members, to walk through it

acquaintance rape

A particularly difficult type of sexual assault is date rape, sometimes called

only the specific area and items named in the warrant

A search conducted with a warrant must be limited to

admissible

A sketch drawn or personally witnessed by an investigator that accurately portrays a crime scene and that is allowed into evidence is referred to as what type of sketch?

rigor mortis

A stiffening of portions of the body after death is referred to as

they arrive at the scene within 30 minutes of being notified

A study of 800 homicide cases found that investigators are more likely to clear a homicide if

druggist fold

A way of folding paper so that evidence does not fall out is referred as a

totality of circumstances test

A way to determine if probable cause exists today is which test?

Automated Fingerprint Identification System

AFIS stands for

Video Analysis

According to a national video forensics expert, what is the "new DNA for law enforcement"?

tripod and cable release

According to the Handbook of Forensic Services, what should be used when photographing latent prints?

in the first hour

According to the text, most cases that are lost are lost during what part of the investigation?

CSI effect

According to the text, when both the public and other professions within the justice system have unrealistic expectations of CSI abilities, law enforcement agencies are said to be suffering from what?

20 years

Acknowledging the severe and dangerous nature of drug-assisted sexual assaults, the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act, signed in 1996, allows courts to impose prison sentences up to __________ on anyone who distributes an illicit drug to som

All of these choices:
noninflammatory.
material.
relevant.

Admissible photographs must be

severe bodily injury to the victim

Aggravated assault requires

overt act

An act toward the commission of a crime that is more complete than a threat or gesture is referred to as what type of act?

All of these choices:
a hit-and-run offense.
harassing phone calls.
a prior offense involving the same victim and suspect.

An example of an indicator crime is

a process of reasoning by which a fact may be deduced

An inference is

Aggravated Assault

An unlawful attack by one person on another in order to inflict severe bodily injury and which often involves use of a dangerous weapon and is a felony is called

20 percent

Approximately what percentage of an officer's time is spent writing reports?

identifying the body

At a death scene, which would not be of immediate concern?

stake in conformity

Batterer intervention programs (BIPs) have found that batterer rehabilitation is significantly affected by what the offender actually has to lose, for example, home ownership, employment and marriage. These variables are referred to as the offender's

local ordinances, county ordinances and state statutes

Because definitions of crimes and their penalties vary considerably depending on where they occur, investigators must be familiar with

eliminate wordiness

Being concise means to

50 percent

By the year 2000, how many domestic violence cases resulted in arrests?

sexual sadists

Certain offenders are likely to be obsessed with keeping trophies and recordings of their assaults, and therefore any search warrant applications in such cases should include photographs, records, scripts, letters, diaries, audiotapes, videotapes and news

discovery crimes

Citizen Online Report Writing is appropriate for

voluntarily

Consent to search is valid only if given

hot spots where crime occurs

Crime mapping focuses on

none of these choices:
substitutes for sketches.
substitutes for notes.
better than sketches.

Crime scene photographs are

advanced role definition and delineation of responsibilities

Critical aspects of a successful investigation include thorough planning and preparation, efficient information management, a focus on effective communication and

intimate partners

Current or former spouses, opposite-sex cohabiting partners, same-sex cohabiting partners and even dating relationships may all be described using which of the following terms

cells from almost any part of the body

DNA profiling can be done using

all of these choices:
samples be submitted for both the suspect and the victim.
sufficient material be collected.
the evidence be probative.

DNA testing is expensive and takes a lot of time. Because of this, laboratories require that

natural, accidental noncriminal, suicide, homicide noncriminal and criminal

Deaths are classified by type as

investigative productivity

Determining the optimal case assignment load, determining what factors are needed to solve crimes and reducing the number of crimes assigned for investigations that cannot be solved are all ways to increase

exculpatory information

Due process disclosure of what type of evidence must be determined and made by the prosecutor?

severely underreported

Elder abuse is

exigent circumstances

Emergency circumstances (such as fire or officers hearing shots fired or screams) that allow officers to enter a home without a warrant are referred to as

search incident to arrest

Every lawful arrest is accompanied by a search of the arrested person. This is referred to as

All of these choices:
continuously
annually
on a special date

Evidence disposal can occur

close in time to the incident

Field or show-up identification is on-the-scene identification of a suspect by a victim or witness of a crime. The show-up must be

None of these choices:
age
race
gender

Fingerprints can indicate

there should be no reasonable expectation of privacy from the skies above

Florida v. Riley (1989) approved the warrantless aerial surveillance, noting that

reasonable force

Force necessary to overcome resistance offered during an arrest is referred to as

age and gender

Hair analysis can reveal all but which of the following?

reflective ultraviolet photography

Healed injuries not visible to the naked eye may be revealed through

domestic violence

Historically, officers are more likely to be assaulted while responding to what type of calls?

a meticulous search with no accidental destruction of evidence

Hopefully, a well-organized, thorough and proper organization of a crime scene search will result in

New York v. Quarles

If a public threat exists, questioning to reduce that threat may occur before the reading of the Miranda warning. Which case highlighted this issue?

cherry red or strong pink

If death is caused by carbon monoxide poisoning, lividity is

They rejected the argument and retained the laws

In April 1998, what did the Supreme Court decide in regard to constitutional challenges that claimed that the Sexual Offender Registration and Notification Act's notification requirements represented an unconstitutional added punishment

containers left on public property are open to search by police without a warrant

In California v. Greenwood, the Supreme Court ruled that

Miranda, because his rights had not been explained to him properly

In Miranda v. Arizona, who won the ultimate appeal and why?

the inevitable-discovery doctrine

In Nix v. Williams, the Court said that if illegally obtained evidence (a statement, in this case, which led to a little girl's body) would, in all likelihood, eventually have been discovered legally (for example, by a large search party), it may be used.

the force is objectively reasonable under Fourth Amendment excessive force analysis

In Saucier v. Katz (2001), the Supreme Court held that the guide for use of excessive force is that

does not violate a suspect's rights

In United States v. Knotts (1983), the Court ruled that installing and monitoring a bird dog tracking device in a public location

good-faith doctrine

In United States v. Leon, the court established that illegally obtained evidence may be admissible if the police were truly not aware they were violating a suspect's Fourth Amendment rights. In this case, the police were following up on a tip from an unre

lineups

In United States v. Wade, the Court said that a suspect must be informed of his or her right to have a lawyer present during what type of process?

pretextual stop

In Whren v. United States (1996), the Supreme Court affirmed that officers could stop vehicles to allay any suspicions even though they have no evidence of criminal behavior. This type of stop is referred to as a

facts

In a police report, the majority of statements should be

be a police officer with the proper training and attitude

In a sexual assault case, it is best that the interviewer of the victim

reports, records and databases; people who are not suspects in a crime but know something of the crime; and suspects in the crime

In addition to physical evidence, three primary sources of information are available:

instrumental violence

In assessing victim-offender relationships (VOR,), violence that is goal-directed predatory behavior used to exert control�such as a carjacker who shoots his victim before stealing the vehicle�is referred as what type of violence?

follow-up investigation

In cases where officers were not able to complete the investigation for some reason, what may be required?

that race can be considered among other factors to use in developing suspects

In the DEA smuggling case United States v. Weaver (1992), what did the Court rule?

place an item into a specific category

In the examination of objects of physical evidence, class characteristics are important because they can

behavior-oriented interview

In what type of interview do you carefully question the victim about the rapist's behavior, analyze the behavior to ascertain the motivation underlying the assault and then compile a profile of the individual likely to have committed the crime?

United States v. Jacobsen

In which 1984 case did the Supreme Court define a search as "a governmental infringement of a legitimate expectation of privacy?

north

In which direction should the top of a sketch be oriented?

An officer conducts a search of a motorist for a driving infraction

In which of the following cases is a search not legal?

brother, sister or parent

Incest is sexual intercourse with a(n)

analysis

Information or data is not intelligence. Information needs which component to become intelligence?

chain of custody

Integrity of evidence refers to the requirement that any item introduced in court must be in the same condition as when it was found at the crime scene. This is documented by the chain of evidence, also referred to as the

simple assault

Intentionally causing another person to fear immediate bodily harm or death or intentionally inflicting or attempting to inflict bodily harm on the person is called what?

Convey information to the victim or the victim's family

Investigative reports are read by many people and used for many purposes. Which of the following is not an example of how a report would typically be used?

half of the victim's eye looks dry when the body is brought out of the water

It can be assumed that a victim has died on land if

gunshot residue (GSR)

Laboratory examination of ___________ under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is still considered a reliable analysis method, although enhancements in technology have been necessary

five to ten individuals

Live lineups generally contain

surveillance

Making a legal arrest, gaining information for warrants or even preventing crime can all be the result of

provide adequate training

Many agencies fail to do this with those tasked with videotaping a crime scene:

All of these choices:
autopsies
crime scene reconstruction
medicolegal

Medical examiners and coroners' (ME/C) offices provide death investigation services locally and are responsible for what type of investigation of deaths?

while officers are on the premises pursuing their legitimate emergency activities, any evidence in plain view may be seized

Mincey v. Arizona established that

suicides

Most cases of hanging are

determine the time and cause of death

Most medical examinations of a deceased person are conducted primarily to

criminal homicide

Murder is classified as