Ch 7 LearnSmart

1. From the biological perspective, which of the following statements are true about bipolar disorder?

Brain scan and testing suggest that people with bipolar disorder have difficulties in attention, memory, and executive functioning. The gene involved in bipolar disorder is the "piccolo" gene. Bipolar has an even stronger pattern of genetic inheritance than major depressive disorder. Est. heritability of 60%

2. Individuals develop feelings of grandiosity and elation or become hyper energetic as an unconscious defense against sinking into gloom and despair. This is the explanation for bipolar disorder from which perspective?

Answer: Psychoanalytic.

According to psychoanalytic theory, people with depressive disorders. A. unconsciously felt that their mothers never loved them. B. suffered a loss early in life. C. suffered from maladaptive assumptions learned in childhood. D. suffered from earned helpl

Answer: suffered a loss early in life that affected them at a deep, intrapsychic level.

According to the ___ perspective, individuals develop depressive disorders in response to stressful life events.

Answer: Sociocultural

Compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder has a stronger, equal, weaker or no reported pattern of genetic inheritance?

Answer: A stronger reported pattern of genetic inheritance. Heritability of 60%

What contributes to the biopsychosocial perspective for understanding why people commit suicide?

Answer: Exposure to life stresses. Distorted cognitive processes. And a genetic predisposition.

___ disorder symptoms are more chronic and less severe than those of bipolar disorder but do include both manic and depressive symptoms.

Answer: Cyclothymic.

The essential element of a ___ disorder is an unusually elevated sad mood, known as dysphoria.

Answer: Depressive.

Matilda has been on top of the world for the pas week. She feels invincible and that she can do no wrong. She is working on solving the world's major problems and is sure she can come up with an answer. She has had very little sleep over the last few days

Answer: Bipolar disorder.

Acute, but time-limited, periods of depressive symptoms are indicative of ____ disorder.

Answer: Major Depressive disorder.

Depressive disorder

general category of mood disorders in which people show extreme and persistent sadness, despair, and loss of interest in life's usual activities.


sense of great unhappiness or dissatisfaction

Major Depressive Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person experiences acute but time limited, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

People receive a diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder if they have:

Two or more major depressive episodes with an interval of at least 2 consecutive months without meeting the criteria for major depressive episode.

Major Depressive Episode, An episode characterized by at least 5 symptoms of:

feelings of intense hopelessness, low self-esteem and worthlessness, extreme fatigue, dramatic changes in eating and sleeping behavior, inability to concentrate, and greatly diminished interest in family, friend, and activities for a period of 2 weeks or more.


A form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression.

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

A depressive disorder in children who exhibit chronic and severe irritability & have frequent temper outbursts 3 or more times a week, for at least a year in at least 2 settings. Onset must be before 10 but not before 6.

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder is earmarked for

children who might be diagnosed with Bipolar. Rather than developing Bipolar, they are at risk of developing depressive and/or anxiety disorders when they reach adulthood.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder aka PMDD

condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems that are closely linked to the menstrual cycle

Bipolar disorder

A mood disorder involving manic episodes which are intense & very disruptive experiences of heightened mood, possibly alternating with major depressive episodes.

Euphoric mood

A feeling state that is more cheerful & elated than average, possibly even ecstatic.

Cyclothymic disorder

involves alternations between dysphoria & shorter, less intense & less disruptive euphoric states called hypomanic episodes; about 4 days. A mild form of Bi-polar II Disorder with hypomania and mild depression.

Hypomanic episodes are less extreme & last

4 consecutive days, & is present most of the day, nearly every day, as opposed to a week like manic episodes.

Clinicians diagnose people who have manic episodes, even if they've never had a depressive episode, as having

Bipolar. An individual must experience a manic episode in order for a clinician to diagnose the person with bipolar disorder.

Two major categories of Bipolar disorder are:

Bipolar 1 & Bipolar 2

Bipolar rapid cycling

4 or more times a year & meet criteria for manic, hypomanic or major depressive disorder.

Cyclothymic Disorder symptoms are more chronic and less

severe than those of bipolar disorder, & never without these symptoms for more than 2 months at a time.

Which disorders mimic major depressive disorder & must be ruled out before a diagnosis of major depressive order can be made?

Delusional disorder, schizophrenia & schizoaffective disorder.

The average age of onset for major depressive disorder is ___ years old.


Adults with ____ depressive disorder have, for at least 2 years, a milder course of depressive symptoms than those associated with major depressive disorder.


Approximately ___ % of the population will develop persistent depressive disorder, dysthymia, in the course of their lives.


Which disorder is characterized by severe & recurrent temper outbursts & irritability & must have had its onset before the age of 10?

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

Margie is usually pleasant & agreeable, but each month, like clockwork, there are consecutive days when she is highly irritable, moody & anxious. Margie most likely has which disorder?

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder aka PMDD

The 2 types of mood disorder in which mood alterations are the primary characteristic are ___ disorder & ___ disorder.

Bipolar & Cyclothymic.

Quentin has been severely depressed for the last two weeks. However, he now feels mildly ecstatic. He is more energetic than normal, & this has lasted for about 4 days before leveling off into more normal behavior. What is probably the best diagnosis of Q

Bipolar (II) 2 disorder

The DSM 5 defines a manic episode as "increased activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and

present most of the day, nearly every day.

Bipolar disorder has a lifetime prevalence rate of ___ in the US population.


Clinicians diagnose people who have 4 or more episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania or mixed symptoms with the ___ cycling form of the disorder.


Adults with ____ disorder meet the criteria for a hypomanic episode many times over the span of 2 years, over those 2 years they have numerous periods of depressive symptoms but never meet the criteria for a major depressive episode.



Discrete, stable & Measurable genetic processes or mechanisms not apparent to the naked eye that explains how an organism's genetic code influences its observable characteristics or phenotypes.


Area of pharmacology that examines the role of genetics in drug response.



Antidepressant medications take from ___ to ___ weeks to work or before a client's symptoms begin to lift.

2 to 6

The "file drawer problem" phenomenon occurs when

researchers file away results that fail to establish significant benefits & only publish positive results.


is effective in treating & preventing recurrence of manic episodes.

Some people who experience manic episodes stop taking lithium because

it interferes with the euphoria at the beginning of a manic episode.

Because of the variable nature of bipolar disorder, additional treatments may be necessary.

People with psychotic symptoms may need anti-psychotic medication, rapid cycling may need an anticonvulsant medication & depressive episodes may need antidepressant medication.

The criteria used in the DSM 5 to identify major depressive episodes, manic episodes & hypomanic episodes were changed in order to help distinguish ___ from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Bipolar disorder.

2 controversial additions to the DSM 5 in mood disorders was

premenstrual dysphoric disorder & people with major depressive symptoms due to bereavement will receive a psychiatric diagnosis.

___ is the use of genetic testing to determine who will & will not improve with a particular medication.


Along with somatic interventions, treatment for treatment-resistant depression should also include


Lewinsohn's model

depressed people have a low rate of "response contingent positive reinforcement behaviors" that increase in frequency as the result of performing actions that produce pleasure.

According to the ___ point of view, the lack of positive reinforcement elicits the symptoms of low self-esteem, guilt & pessimism.


Behavioral activation

method for depression, based on behaviorist principles, the clinician helps the client identify activities associated with positive mood. Client sets goals that gradually increase the frequency & duration of these activities.

Beck defined negative thoughts that lead to depressed emotions as the ___ ___: a negative view of the self, the world, & the future.

cognitive triad

Behaviorally oriented clinicians believe that ___ is an essential component of therapy & assign ___ exercises that encourage clients to make gradual behavioral changes, which will increase the probability that they can achieve their goals, & thus feel rew

education & homework

Behaviorally oriented clinicians also use instruction, modeling, coaching, ___ ____, & rehearsal sometimes in a real world setting.

role playing

Clinicians who practice ___ ___ therapy also called cognitive therapy, work with their clients to try to change the nature of their thought process so that they will be less depressed.

cognitively based therapy; it is an active collaboration between the client & the clinician.

Research comparing CBT & CT to other psychological or medication support it's greater effectiveness both in short & long-term, particularly for moderate or mild depressive disorders but also can be an effective intervention for clients with ____ disorder.


Interpersonal therapy IPT, Uses time-limited psychotherapy lasting between ___ & ___ weeks for treating people with major depressive disorder, based on the assumption that interpersonal stress induces an episode of depression in a person who is geneticall

12 & 16 weeks.

__ therapy is A therapeutic relationship to modify clients feelings, attitudes, behavior using a systematic approach including manuals to guide them in applying the method that has ___ broad phases.

Interpersonal therapy, 3.

The 3 broad phases of Interpersonal therapy are, 1. assessing the magnitude & nature of the individuals depression. 2nd phase is the therapist & client collaborate in formulating a treatment plan that focuses on the primary problem.

& the 3rd phase the therapist carries out the treatment plan using a combination of techniques like self-exploration, support, education & feed back focusing on the here & now. This has shown to be significantly ___ effective than cognitive-behavioral therapy & medications. More.

People with a/n ___ attachment style have a greater risk for developing depressive disorders in adulthood.


Psychoanalytic explanations of bipolar disorder propose that ___ episodes are defensive responses though which individuals stave off feelings of inadequacy, loss & helplessness.


Models of treatment for depression are increasingly moving toward the application of ___ ____ techniques.

cognitive behavioral

One of the earliest behavioral formulations of theories of depression regards the symptoms of depression as resulting from

lack of positive reinforcement.

Bemporad proposed that ___ attached children become preoccupied with the need to be loved by others.


In behavioral activation, these behaviors occur:

Identifying activities associated with positive mood, record-keeping of frequency of engaging in rewarding activities & setting weekly small goals that gradually increase frequency of rewarding activities.

Clients learn to make changes in their environments, are taught necessary social skills & encouraged to become involved in rewarding activities in ___ therapy for depressive disorders.


Interpersonal & ___ rhythm therapy IPSRT is a biopsychosocial approach to treating people with bipolar disorder that proposes that relapses can result from the experience of stressful life events, disturbances in circadian rhythms & problems in personal r

Interpersonal &
rhythm therapy; the goal is to increase stability in a client's social rhythms paying close attention to daily routines including timing of events & the stimulation that occurs with them.

___ ____ has received the strongest support for interventions in mood disorders.


According to the ___ perspective, individuals develop depressive disorders in response to stressful life events.


the following contribute to the biopsychosocial perspective for understanding why people commit suicide:

a genetic predisposition, exposure to life stresses & distorted cognitive processes.

The ___ hypothesis of suicidal describes 3 aspects of resilience.


___ is a self-inflicted destructive act with explicit or inferred intent to die.


Studies of children who suffer from extreme irritability & angry outbursts indicate the children are a t risk of developing ___, & ___ disorders when they reach adulthood.

anxiety & depressive disorder.

What disorder best describes periods of symptoms in which an individual experiences an unusually intense sad mood?

depressive disorder.

Marissa has been severely down in the dumps for the last several weeks. She is not eating, socializing & most mornings she has trouble getting up. This occurred once before about four months ago & lasted for 2 months. Marissa is probably suffering from:

major depressive disorder.

The rate of suicide is under reported due to:

The difficulty of establishing cause of death as intentional rather than unintentional.

which treatments are increasingly being preferred for the treatment of depression?

short-term psychodynamic therapy & cognitive behavioral therapy.

When clinicians treat bipolar disorder, psychoeducation & ___ intervention occur.


With regard to mood disorders, exposure to ___ stress can lead to more persistent feelings of hopelessness.


In the method known as ___ ___ for depression, the clinician helps clients identify activates associated with positive mood.

Behavioral Activation.

Once depression has subsided, the client should continue to take medication for at least:

4 or 5 months.

Clients are encouraged to become involved in rewarding activities, learn to make changes in their environments & are taught necessary social skills in ___ for depressive disorders.

Behavioral therapy