Tracks 4

Ethics refers to the beliefs, values, and principles that guide a person's life and decisions.

True

If something is seriously wrong, the law will prohibit it. Consequently, it's enough to rely on the law for deciding what's right or wrong.

False

A skeptical challenge to business ethics is that there is no common rational basis for making ethical judgments.

True

Gatekeepers are those people and institutions whose role is to provide checks on illegal and unethical behavior.

True

The major reason to study ethics is to be able to answer questions such as "what should I do?" or "what type of person should I be?" or "how shall I live in my community?

True

According to philosophical ethics, a simple acceptance of customary norms is an adequate ethical perspective.

False

Philosophical ethics distinguish what people do value from what they should value.

True

Philosophical ethics denies that conformity and obedience are the best guides to how we should live.

False

Ethics and ethos are the same thing.

False

Business ethics is concerned more with reasoning than answers.

True

The unexamined life, according to Socrates, is not worth living.

True

Which of the following statements is decisive in determining whether or not to study business ethics?

Ethical concerns are as unavoidable in business as are concerns of marketing, accounting, finance, and human resources. Formal study of business ethics helps address these concerns so that businesses can integrate ethics in their decision-making.

Ethical behavior and an ethical reputation can provide a competitive advantage in the marketplace and with customers, suppliers, and employees.

True

In a society that values individual freedom, everything that is legal is ethically right and everything that is ethically wrong is illegal.

False

The role of an ethics course should be to convey information to a passive audience, while treating students as passive learners.

False

Utilitarian ethics has played a prominent role in forming public policy and laws governing finance, employment, consumerism, and world trade.

True

A version of utilitarian ethics invoking the tradition of Adam Smith claims that competitive markets are the best means for attaining utilitarian goals. This is "market" utilitarianism.

True

Virtue ethics reminds us to examine how character traits are formed and conditioned.

True

Because utilitarianism focuses on consequences, producing the greatest happiness for the greatest number as the sole criterion for determining ethical right and wrong, no action is ever right or wrong in itself, in all cases, in every situation�even, perh

True

Which proposition correctly describes the concept of a right?

Rights protect a person's interests.

Which of the following statements is true of utilitarian ethics?

...

Which statement is a legitimate challenge to utilitarian ethical theory?

...

According to Kant, any action's maxim that cannot be universalized is ethically wrong and should not be performed.

True

Which of the following statements is true of virtue ethics?

Virtue ethics directs us to consider how various character traits can contribute to, or obstruct, a worthy and good human life.

Rights are sometimes described as "trumps" that override the collective will. Rights function to protect certain interests that are more important and central in human well-being than the mere happiness of others.

True

Principle-based ethics, also called rights-based ethics, refers to the concept that the correct path to ethical decision making is determined by duties, such as obligations, commitments, and responsibilities, and not by consequences.

True

Which of the following statements is true of ethical theories?

...

According to principle-based ethics, individuals possess certain basic rights that should not be violated even if doing so would increase the overall good or social happiness.

True

Jeremy Bentham argued that only the absence of pain is intrinsically valuable.

False

According to John Stuart Mill, people need to be educated and experienced in a variety of pleasures before they are competent to judge.

True

Unlike utilitarians, policy makers are not concerned with the well-being of the whole community.

False

The condition of plenty or surplus and competition allows everyone to get what they want; this is a condition of free market capitalism.

False

The theory of virtue ethics focuses on a full and detailed description of those character traits that would constitute a good and human life. Egoism is simply not a factor in the ethical decision making of caring, empathetic, charitable, and sympathetic p

True

Which of the following statements is consistent with principle-based ethics?

...

Which of the following ethical traditions implies that a greedy person who does distasteful and selfish things will not lead a fulfilling and good human life?

Virtue ethics

Market failures occur in a variety of situations in which the pursuit of profit will not result in a net increase in consumer satisfaction because in these situations markets fail to do what they were designed to do.

True

A wider interpretation of the meaning of a stakeholder as any affected party places an impossible burden on managers who would have to account for everyone who might be affected by a business decision.

True

According to the private property defense of the economic model of corporate social responsibility, any use of a corporation's resources for any purpose other than maximizing profits is a violation of the owners' property rights and amounts to theft.

True

The stakeholder theory of corporate social responsibility is totally incompatible with the utilitarian ethical theory because the stakeholder concept requires balancing the interests of all the parties affected by business decisions.

False

The free market, or neoclassical, theory of corporate social responsibility relies on utilitarianism and the concepts of individual rights to freedom and property for its ethical justification.

True

In which of the following ideas are the ethical roots of the economic model of corporate social responsibility found?

Managers are ethically obliged to make as much money as possible for their stockholders because to do otherwise would undermine the very foundations of our free society.

The significance of the moral minimum approach lies in its recognition that compliance with the law is insufficient for being an ethically responsible business.

True

Bowie's Kantian model of corporate social responsibility obliges managers to do no harm, but they must also be prepared at times to do some good or prevent some harm.

False

Which statement is true of Bowie's Kantian approach to business ethics?

While it is ethically good for managers to prevent harm or do some good, their duty to stockholders overrides these concerns.

Which of the following statements is true of the stakeholder model of corporate social responsibility?

It begins with the insight that every business decision affects a wide variety of people, benefiting some and imposing costs on others.

Which statement does not support the claim that an unconditioned ethical directive such as the one the economic model of corporate social responsibility demands of business management is inappropriate for utilitarian theory?

A more precise formulation of a utilitarian-based principle would be to maximize profit whenever doing so produces the greatest good for the greatest number, with the proviso that managers must consider the impact a decision will have in many ways other t

The management of an online retailer is mostly interested in implementing strategies and pushing policies that result in the utilization of their stockholders' property to serve the interests of its employees and the local community. The defenders of whic

The economic model of corporate social responsibility

To use a company's resources for a project that does not contribute to maximizing profits is sometimes acceptable and even sometimes required under the economic model of corporate social responsibility.

False

Efficient markets guarantee that an ethically worthy outcome has been achieved.

False

Which statement represents a challenge to Evan and Freeman's defense of the stakeholder theory against the economic model of corporate social responsibility?

The stakeholder theory cannot answer the question as to how, exactly, a manager should go about balancing the diverse and competing claims of all parties.

In an organization, codes and rules prove to be meaningless if ethical behavior is not enforced.

True

Which of the following statements is true of corporate cultures?

An organization's culture offers it direction and stability during challenging times.

In a study of the nature of ethical leadership, if leaders strongly demonstrated individual traits of receptivity, listening, openness, and caring for people, these traits were found to impede their success and employees' perception of them as ethical lea

False

Before having an impact on the culture via a code of conduct or a statement of values, a company must first determine its mission and articulate its mission statement.

True

Which of these is not a requirement of internal mechanisms for reporting wrongdoing within an organization?

They must report to legal authorities.

Which of the following is a difference between the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the United States Coast Guard?

Unlike FEMA, the United States Coast Guard empowers front-line individuals to solve problems without waiting for superiors to give directions.

Which of the following is true of an ethical organizational culture?

An ethical culture empowers employees to act in ethically responsible ways even when the law does not require it.

Which of these is true regarding assessment and monitoring of the ethics of a corporate culture?

Ongoing ethics audits can and do serve all of these functions within an organization.

Whistleblowing" can harm the business and the whistleblower, but has not been known to end the unethical behavior it exposes.

False

Ethical business leaders not only act ethically on a personal level, but also allocate corporate resources to support and promote ethical behavior in the workplace.

True

The critics of work-life balance practices believe that work can be a central part of an individual's identity and it can have significant benefits for people.

True

The Greek philosopher Aristotle disparaged work because of its very necessary, and therefore slavish, nature.

True

The human fulfillment model of work believes that work is the primary means for developing human potential.

True

Which of the following statements is a classical interpretation of work?

All of the answers are correct.

A job might be described simply as work in which self-identity and the activity are independent of each other.

True

Karl Marx was sure that industrial capitalism inevitably, necessarily, alienates workers from the product of their work, from the creative process of work, and from their very essence as social creatures.

True

Which of the following is a true expression of Marx's concept of alienation?

Alienation is the result of work that prevents the full development of human potential.

Both liberals who believe that the ethical assessment of work should be based on how work affects the workers' ability to make free and autonomous decisions about their lives and the human fulfillment school that makes that judgment on the basis of what m

False

The value of housework and child care have systematically been undervalued by social programs such as Social Security, unemployment insurance, and many public policies concerned with marriage and divorce.

True

Indicate the statement that is not consistent with Bowie's liberal theory of work.

It is a simple enough task to find a justification for any objective, normative definition of meaningful work.

To the degree that work can be intellectual, leisurely, and free, it can be meaningful; employment and wage labor are as likely to attain these conditions.

False

In the context of the meaning of work, which of the following statements is true?

Work means activities that involve perseverance, discipline, toil, usually performed with a degree of seriousness and concentration.

According to the human fulfillment model, the psychological and social benefits of work do not reduce to merely subjective and personal values.

True

It is its potential to be intimately connected to our deepest values that makes the meaning and value of work have important implications for the structure and operation of the workplace.

True

The idea that the meaning and value of work is whatever the workers determine that it is simply doesn't challenge in any significant way Bowie's contention that employers have an obligation to provide meaningful work.

False

Which of the following would be a moral right of an individual?

The right to free speech

Which of the following statements is true of work?

Work is necessary to acquire many central human goods.

Identify the proposition that challenges the argument for mandatory union membership.

Bargaining between employers and employees will be equal only if the employees bargain for wages and benefits as individuals.

It is simply too much to ask of employers to provide an ideally safe workplace.

true

Which statement fails to provide a valid reason in support of John McCall's claim that employees have a right to participate in management decisions?

None of the answers are correct.

A modified version of the right to a job claims that the government should be the last resort for people who are able to work but unable to find jobs in the private sector.

true

Which of the following moral rights could be waived in order to get a job or an increase in employment benefits?

None of the answers are correct.

Information about employees that is gathered through such technologies as polygraphs, drug-testing, surveillance, psychological tests, or electronic monitoring may sometimes have to include information that is not ordinarily job-relevant and legitimately

false

According to the free market and classical models of corporate social responsibility, individual bargaining between employees and employers would be the best approach to workplace health and safety. Which statement does not support this approach?

The means the market uses to gather information about risks is by observing the harms done to the first generation exposed to imperfect market transactions and market failures.

In the context of workplace safety, risks are defined as the probability of harm, and relative risks would entail comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities.

true

Select the statement that represents an erosion of employment at will as a legal doctrine.

All of the answers are correct.

Identify a moral right from the following options.

The right to work

Without collective bargaining, employers would have a stronger incentive to compromise with individual employees on levels of wages and benefits.

false

Rather than specifying every acceptable and unacceptable reason for dismissing an employee, due process refers to the procedures employers must go through before dismissing workers.

true

In the United States, civil rights laws do not protect employees from being fired on the basis of race and sex.

false

Some observers argue that insider trading is an efficient means to disseminate accurate information about the market and that it moves the markets in the direction of equilibrium. The challenge to this argument is, however, that this is accomplished by un

true

The Kantian tradition in principle-based ethics argues that dishonesty treats others as a means to our own ends and thus disrespects the dignity of other persons.

true

Personal interests of managers that interfere with their responsibilities as managers constitute an unethical conflict for them.

true

The fact that employees take on special role-specific responsibilities within an economic system that benefits everyone is one reason offered for the claim that these responsibilities override other ethical considerations.

true

Which of the following statements accurately represents philosopher Ronald Duska's views on loyalty in business?

Employees have no responsibility of loyalty to their employees as the overriding goal of business is profit.

While it is plausible that some dishonest acts, like bluffing a person in a business transaction, can have beneficial social consequences that do not threaten the stability of underlying social practices, it would be harder to claim that routine dishonest

true

Ensuring that markets function within the law, assume full information, and must be free from fraud and deception is an important internal function for market-based economic systems.

true

Which statement is not true of the agency concept?

The primary responsibilities in the employer-agent relationship lie with the employer.

According to Richard DeGeorge, even if a whistle-blower does not have documented evidence that will convince impartial observers of a firm's role in causing harm, he or she is nevertheless obligated to blow the whistle.

false

One reason why a blanket obligation for all employees to obey their employers no matter what is unreasonable is that the choice of obeying someone's command or jeopardizing one's job is fundamentally coercive, and, thus, the consent involved is not fully

true

According to Richard DeGeorge, which statement presents a condition that makes blowing the whistle on a company not just permissible but obligatory?

The whistle-blower has good reason to believe that blowing the whistle will prevent the harm.

Which of the following statements reflects a reason for business principals to invest in stock?

All of the answers are correct.

Unless and until a firm has demonstrated a willingness to sacrifice on behalf of employees, employees have little reason to demonstrate loyalty to the firm.

true

Select the statement that, ethically speaking, best represents a valid concept of what loyalty to a firm means.

While a willingness to sacrifice might be a part of loyalty, it would seem that devotion and faithfulness to a common good is both more essential to loyalty and what explains the willingness to sacrifice.

Which statement describes a managerial action that does not unethically impose costs upon stockholders and other stakeholders?

The action imposes unwanted costs on stockholders and stakeholder by giving up some alternatives in favor of others in the interest of maintaining the fiscal stability of the enterprise.

It is alleged that markets fail, in some situations, to insure a fair price and thereby limit consumers' freedom. Which statement does not support that allegation?

From the utilitarian perspective, consumers are always benefited by low prices and balancing the benefits to buyers from low prices with the benefits to sellers of high prices is the only ethical pricing issue.

Which of the following statements is true of the pharmaceutical industry?

Evidence shows that the pharmaceutical industry spends more money marketing their drugs than they do on research and development of new drugs.

In claiming that the concept of negligence should include the standard of the "reasonable" person who is a thoughtful, reflective, and judicious decision maker, we are surely asking no more of the average consumer than he or she is capable of giving.

false

Identify a true statement about ethics in marketing.

An aspect of consumer autonomy requires that customer consent be not only voluntary, but also informed.

The assumption that consumers are benefited whenever their preferences are satisfied in the market holds true under close scrutiny.

false

The legal concept of negligence focuses on the conduct and state of mind of the producers and holds them responsible for harms only when they fail to act in ways that could have prevented the harm.

true

Even though parties freely engage in an exchange of goods or services, we cannot be sure that autonomy has been respected (the Kantian requirement) and that mutual benefit has been achieved (the utilitarian requirement).

true

Because the efficiency benefits of large retailers can be passed on to consumers in the form of lower prices and because a competitive market should drive out uncompetitive firms, there is no persuasive rationale for claiming that it is unethical and unfa

false

Identify a true statement about the obesity epidemic in the United States.

It is near impossible to trace particular cases of obesity-related health harm to a particular food or drink.

Select the statement that is at odds with the idea that pricing strategies may be unfair.

Established distribution systems reward large retailers with lower costs per unit rather than the smaller stores that have higher cost per unit.

Identify the statements in which John McCall argues that strict liability is no more unfair than it would be to hold injured consumers accountable.

By holding the manufacturer liable, the costs are passed on, ordinarily through increased liability insurance costs, to those who stand to benefit from the product.

The contract model of the marketing relationship that offers a consumer only a limited or expressed warranty on a product is not really one-sided nor does it fail to meet the standards of truly informed consent because the consumer agrees to these limitat

false

The legal doctrine of strict product liability is controversial because it unfairly holds a business accountable for paying damages in cases where it was not at fault.

true

The ethical perspective that underlies tort law holds that we all owe other people certain general duties, even if we have not explicitly and voluntarily assumed them.

true

A prima facie ethically legitimate market exchange is conditional to mutual benefit for each party involved.

true

Robert Arrington argues that marketing influences us by appealing to pre-existing and independent desires, and since marketing does not prevent us from renouncing those desires, and as long as we don't renounce them, they must still be considered autonomo

true

Ethical wrong is done either by intending to deceive consumers in order to manipulate their buying behavior, treating them as a mere means to one's own ends (the Kantian approach) or by the harmful consequences for consumers, competitors and overall marke

false

Sales, unlike marketing that is directed to general populations, are directed to individuals, and, as a result, any salesperson who fails to stop a sales pitch when he or she suspects that a customer's decision-making is not autonomous, is acting unethica

true

Select the practice that is not a form of consumer manipulation.

Researching the criteria that a typical buyer uses to select a particular make and model of automobile

There is universal agreement for determining precise standards for what constitutes deception and how best to regulate it.

false

Manipulation of a person, considered as a process of subtle direction or management, does not entail total control of that person.

true

Even if most manipulation is done to further the manipulator's own ends at the expense of the person being manipulated, utilitarians would not generally be inclined to think that such manipulation necessarily lessens overall happiness.

false

Select the statement that correctly describes the dependence effect derived from John Kenneth Galbraith's ideas on consumer affluence.

Consumer demand depends on what producers have to sell. Demand is a function of supply. Advertising creates wants.

Even if marketing practices are effective, even if marketing can and does influence consumer choice, there is no reason to believe that marketing has any ethical responsibility for the consequences of choices made by consumers who are vulnerable to produc

false

Which of the following examples are ways in which persons are vulnerable as consumers because they are vulnerable in some more general sense?

All of the answers are correct.

Both Gerald Dworkin and Roger Crisp would argue that critical reflection on a desire is not necessary for that desire to be autonomous.

false

Select the statements that challenge the idea that marketers cannot be held liable for decisions that any individual makes.

B and D.

Identify the statement that does not challenge Robert Arrington's argument that because marketing doesn't prevent us from renouncing our pre-existing and independent choices, our desires for them must be considered autonomous.

Even if some consumer choices are not autonomous, nothing in Dworkin's or Crisp's analysis shows that advertising is responsible for violating autonomy, only that some consumers do not act in a fully self-conscious way.

Any effort by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to evaluate expected deceptive marketing practices would be seriously flawed because it would mean punishing business on the basis of what the FTC thinks might happen rather than on what actually does happe

true

If consumers are being manipulated by advertising, what are some key ethical implications?

All of the answers are correct.

Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 required significant changes throughout American society, especially in the workplace and commerce, it was, politically speaking, only mildly controversial.

false

Identify the reason for not believing that it would be correct to shift from the reasonable "man" or reasonable "person" standard to the reasonable "women" standard for identifying conduct that unreasonably interferes with work.

This shift can reinforce the unacceptable sexual and paternalistic stereotype of women as more sensitive, fragile, and delicate than men and that, therefore, women need extra protection from the rough and tough workplace.

The word "sex" can mean sex as gender or sex as sexuality. Even though the treatment a woman receives in a case of quid pro quo sexual harassment is unequal, it only involves sexuality and, as a result, cannot be a case of gender discrimination as well.

false

The "reasonable person" standard for judging the severity of workplace sexual harassment may mean what the average person considers reasonable, and that understanding may simply ingrain notions of reasonable behavior fashioned by the male offenders and ma

true

In the context of what constitutes unreasonable conduct of a sexual nature, a shift to a reasonable woman standard from the traditional concept of the reasonable man standard will discourage sexual stereotyping and paternalistic behaviors.

false

The most effective way to create a diverse workplace is to use categories of sex, race, or ethnicity as a criterion for hiring or promotion, but it violates equality by denying equal opportunity for white males.

true

When an employer seeks to increase the applicant pool for its positions, no white male's rights are violated because no white male has been denied anything to which he had a legitimate ethical claim.

true

Quid pro quo harassment cases that involve trading sexual realties with workplace benefits are forms of coercion or extortion.

true

Choose the statement that does not support the claim that justice requires preferential hiring and promotion to compensate people for the harms they have suffered.

Young white males will lose their undeserved competitive advantage if society simply adopts equal opportunity policies.

Select the statement or situation that would likely not challenge the merit argument that the most qualified candidate for a position has earned or deserves it and the denial of this dessert is unjust.

The public advertising for a position expressly states its qualifications.

Which of the following is an argument in support of preferential hiring?

Preferential hiring is an ethically legitimate means for compensating people for the harms that they have suffered.

Discrimination, in itself, does not give rise to ethical problems unless the criteria for making it are unethical or unfair.

true

Identify the arguments that have not been used to support or refute the ethical legitimacy of preferential hiring policies.

None of the answers are correct.

One of the major arguments for preferential treatment in hiring is that such policies are a legitimate means for compensating people for harms they have suffered. To fail to compensate continues a practice of undeserved advantages for white males having t

true

Even though the principle of equality in its most basic sense requires us to treat likes alike, ignoring the effects of undeserved and unfair disadvantages is not treating unlikes alike as long as it is done for the sake of some formal principle of equal

false

One response made to young white males who claim that they did not cause the harm done by past discrimination and, therefore, are being unfairly harmed by being denied equal access is that they are simply being denied something they did not deserve�that i

true

Select the statement that emphasizes the startling contrast between gains made by women in professional careers and women in business careers.

Between 1973 and 1993, the percentage of women lawyers and judges increased from 5.8 to 22.7 percent.

Choose the statements that correctly reflect the likely utilitarian view of preferential treatment in hiring.

Hiring decisions should be based on the ability of the candidate to perform the job efficiently and skillfully
and
Consequences like the goodwill of long-term employees whose families are given preference in hiring must be considered.

Legal access alone is usually sufficient to give a woman or person of color a really fair chance to succeed in a predominantly male or white workplace.

false

Choose the action that exemplifies affirmative action�that is, taking extra steps that move beyond passive nondiscrimination.

All of the answers are correct.

Identify a moral right from the following options.

the right to work

The fact that political and economic elites in other countries tolerate corrupt and unethical conduct and are the very ones to benefit from that conduct in certain cases does not provide evidence to support the claim that what we take as unethical is ethi

true

The "reasonable person" standard for judging the severity of workplace sexual harassment may mean what the average person considers reasonable, and that understanding may simply ingrain notions of reasonable behavior fashioned by the male offenders and ma

true

Stockholder rights raise a relevant objection to the participation of workers in management decisions only if such participation threatens a stockholder's investment.

true

One meaning of "employee rights" is that employees have claims independently of any particular legal system, claims that originate from the respect due to them as human beings.

true

The dependence effect is based on John Kenneth Galbraith's claim that consumer demand depends on what producers have to sell. In effect, advertising, by creating wants, manipulates consumers and violates their autonomy.

true

The employment at will doctrine means, essentially, that unless a specific contract states otherwise, an employer has the right to hire and fire an employee for any reason whatever and the employee has the right to quit a job at any time.

true

Select the statements reflecting the general sense of vulnerability that is relevant to target marketing.

A and C

The strict product liability standard requires a manufacturer to compensate injured consumers:

even if the manufacturer was not at fault, even if there was nothing the manufacturer could have done to prevent the harm.

Which of the following statements is true of the pharmaceutical industry?

Evidence shows that the pharmaceutical industry spends more money marketing their drugs than they do on research and development of new drugs.

Choose the statements that do not support the idea that international businesses should rely on local firms and independent contractors to supply workers in host countries.

A and D

Which ethical question is not relevant to the process of marketing a product?

none of the answers are correct

Select the preferential treatment policy that is likely to raise the least serious ethical challenge.

Giving preference to otherwise qualified but previously disadvantaged candidates

Given that business transactions between two parties are mutually beneficial and freely entered into, social norms of equal treatment and fairness or questions as to what social goods are promoted or threatened are not ethically relevant to the transactio

false

Select the statement that is not an objection to insisting that diversity of values in cultures entails compromising because of ethical relativism.

none of the answers are correct

Select the reasoning that challenges support for the ethical case for free trade and international economic cooperation.

Even though newly employed workers in the poorer countries who are forced to take jobs that are at a subsistence level in sweatshop conditions are better off in these jobs than they would be without them, the choice to work under such conditions is little

Choose the statement that does not provide a reasonable way for international businesses to treat their employees in foreign countries on a comparable level with their treatment of employees in their home countries.

Pay wages and benefits that are very similar in the home and host countries.

Select the statement that does not reflect the connection between the two senses of privacy as a right to be "left alone" and privacy as a right to control information about oneself.

The right to control certain very personal decisions and information has little relevance to determining the kind of person we are and the person we become.

One major challenge to the minimalist approach that holds that business is free to pursue its economic interests as long as certain minimal moral rights are not violated in the process is that it does not seem to explain why the responsibilities correlate

true

Identify the statement that challenges the criticism that global economic integration threatens deeply held noneconomic values.

Global market capitalism fueled by multinational corporations seeks to expand worldwide markets for their products and creates a cultural homogenization that threatens local cultures and traditions.

Identify the ways in which the process of international economic integration has increasingly become more common and accelerated in the last decade or two.

all of the answers are correct

It is simply too much to ask of employers to provide an ideally safe workplace.

true

To conclude that the most qualified candidate has a legitimate ethical claim on a job is to treat jobs as the private property of business owners to be distributed as they see fit, not as social goods that should be distributed on grounds of fairness.

false

Select the statement that might represent a valid objection to worker participation in management decisions.

Substantial conflicts that exist between the interests of the firm and the interests of the employees are more likely to occur than similar conflicts between the interests of managers and the interests of the firm.

Identify the statement that would not support the idea that determining precise standards for what constitutes deception and how best to regulate it is problematical.

It is enough to prevent beforehand harms that deceptive practices might do rather than regulate them after the harms have been done.

Identify the statement that fails to reinforce the idea that the purchases made by consumers may not be truly voluntary.

None of the answers are correct.