SHRM - Talent Selection Process


Process of evaluating the most suitable candidate for a position.

Why do we screen candidates? What are we trying to do?

Narrow down the candidate pool to a smaller group of qualified candidates

What are the 4 steps in the selection process?

1.) Screen 2.) Interview 3.) Assess and Evaluate 4.) Select and Offer

In addition to education and other qualifications, what should employers assess?

How well a candidate will assimilate into an org's culture.

What are some negative effects of making a "bad hire?

Cost can be 1-1.5x the person's salary, impact attitude and morale of employees, results in reduced productivity and increased costs, tied to org's overall success.

What are some alternatives to hiring a new worker?

Outsourcing, contingent labor, sharing a resource/employee from another department

Selection Screening

Analyzing candidates' application forms, CV's, and r�sum�s to locate the most qualified candidates for an open job.

What are the outcomes of selection screening?

- ID applicants who fit the minimum selection criteria
- Provide a source of questions for subsequent interviews
- Provide information for reference checks
- Help ensure line management only interview qualified candidates

Applicant Tracking System (ATS)

Automated approach for keeping track of job applicants from the receipt of an application to hiring employees.

What are some pros and cons of using an ATS?

Pro: reduces time to review documents; Con: applicants may pad their resumes in anticipation of an ATS looking for keywords, and may not actually be qualified.

Curriculum vitae (CV)

Detailed overview of a candidate's accomplishments, especially those relevant to the realm of academia. Can include grants, awards, publications, scholarly memberships, and references


A brief account of one's work experience and qualifications.

Why might a hiring manager want an applicant to submit both an application form + a resume / CV?

1.) While a CV presents what the applicants wants the HM to know, an application form presents what the HM wants to know; 2.) The application form may help indicate if a candidate has exaggerated on their resume; 3.) Signature on an application form can s

What are some warning signs (i.e., red flags) in a resume?

Is the candidate over/underqualified, are there attempts to hide gaps in employment, is there excessive "filler" information, does the applicant take too much credit for work completed by a team of people?

Selection Interviews

Designed to probe areas of interest to the interviewer in order to determine how well the candidate meets the needs of the organization.

Differences between pre-screening and in-depth interviews

Pre-screening: 20 min or less, conducted by HR, and useful when an org has a high number of applicants and face-to-face interviews are required. In-Depth: 1 hour or more, conducted by line management, may also include potential colleagues as interviewers.

What are some types of in-depth interviews?

Structured, Unstructured, Behavioral, Competency-Based, Group, and Stress

Structured Interview

- The interviewer asks every candidate the same questions. Follow-up questions may be different.
- The interviewer stays in control of the interview.
- AKA "repetitive interviews

Pros of conducting a structured interview

- Ensures similar info is gathered from all candidates
- Gives each candidate the same opportunity to create a good impression
- Able to compare qualifications and reduce equity concerns

Unstructured Interview

- Interview is more like an everyday conversation. Questions are not pre-set, but may have certain pre-determined topics.
- Interviewer asks questions based on the candidate's responses and proceeds in a friendly manner
- AKA non-directive interviews

Characteristics of an unstructured interview

- Relies on social interaction between interviewer and candidate
- Gives the interviewer the opportunity to pursue a topic and ask follow-up questions

Behavioral Interview

- Interviewer focuses on how the candidate previously handled real situations
- Interviewer asks very pointed questions to determine if the candidate meets the minimum qualifications

Pros of conducting a behavioral interview

- Provides insight into how the candidate handled past job-related situations
- Allows the interviewers to probe more than traditional questions

What are the 3 key pieces of information an interviewer looks for from a question in a behavioral interview?

1.) Description of the situation or task
2.) Action taken
3.) Result or outcome

Competency-Based Interview

- Interviewer asks questions that are based on real situations related to the competencies for the position.
- Interviewer asks the candidate to provide an example of a time he or she demonstrated the competency.

Group interview

- Can be 1 interviewer and multiple candidates at once
- Can be a "fishbowl" interview, where the applicant works with others to a true-to-life work setting
- Can be 1 applicant and multiple interviewers

Difference between team interview and panel interview

Team interviews are used when the position relies heavily on team cooperation. Team members of all levels are involved in the interview. Panel interviews are comprised of the SME in relevant areas who ask structured questions.

Stress Interview

Can involve provocative or aggressive interview tactics that put a candidate on the defensive. The objective is to see how the candidate reacts under pressure.

Guidelines for an Effective Interview

Establish rapport, let them know what to expect, Listen carefully, observe more than talk and paraphrase their statements to ensure understanding, Make smooth transitions between topics, Observe nonverbal behavior, Take notes, Conclude the interview by re

How can interview questions be formulated?

Turn desired skillsets into open-ended questions. I.e., if negotiation is a key skill, ask "tell me about a situation in which you used your negotiation skills and what was the result.

Substantive Assessment Methods

Determining who among the minimally qualified will likely be the best performers on the job. AKA pre-employment tests.

Cognitive Ability Tests

Type of Substantive Assessment.
- Assess skills candidate's skills.
- Measure mental abilities, such as verbal and mathematical skills, reasoning, and reading comprehension.
- Typically consist of multiple-choice items

Personality tests

Type of Substantive Assessment.
- Attempt to measure a person's social interaction skills and patterns of behavior.
- Typically administered in a paper-and-pencil or computer format.

Aptitude tests

Type of Substantive Assessment.
- Measure the general ability to learn or acquire a new skill.
- Looks at a person's innate capacity to function.
- Predicts learning and training success.

Psychomotor tests

Type of Substantive Assessment.
- Require demonstration of minimum degree of strength, physical dexterity, and coordination in a specialized skill area.
- Based on key job duties and responsibilities; only appropriate if the primary duties require such ab

Assessment centers

Type of Substantive Assessment.
- method of assessing higher-level managerial and supervisory competencies.
- Requires completion of exercises that simulate actual situations, problems, and tasks they would face on the job.
- Usually last at least a day a

Discretionary Assessment Methods

More focused on finding a cultural fit. Very subjective in nature and should not be used alone.

Contingent Assessment Methods

A job offer is made contingent on passing the assessment (such as a drug test)

Cross-Cultural Assessment Tools

To assess cross-cultural behaviors. Particularly useful in global operations.

Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI)

A self-scoring assessment instrument that can help individuals or groups identify their current strengths and weaknesses within four critical skill areas important for effective cross-cultural communication and interaction: adapting to new situations, int

Cultural Orientations Indicator�(COI�)

Web-based cross-cultural assessment tool that allows individuals to assess their work style and cultural preferences.
Provides respondents with recommendations and suggests relevant resources for building effective skills and cultural agility.

Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI)

Statistically reliable, valid measure of intercultural competence; 50-item inventory based on Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) to assess the extent of an individual's intercultural development along a continuum.

SAGE (Self-Assessment for Global Endeavors)

Assessment tool organizations can use to assist in decision making for employees contemplating a global assignment.
Can also be used by candidates to evaluate three areas (self, career, and family) before making the decision to accept a global assignment.

What are some questions to consider regarding Selection Equity?

- Has the org been successful in finding and selecting a diverse & multifaceted workforce?
- Do applicants view the process and decisions as fair?
- Is the candidate experience consistent across applicants?
- Have we applied an equity focus that finds the

What are some questions to consider regarding the Cost Effectiveness of the selection process?

- Do the costs of assessments and the ensure selection process correlate with successful hires? I.e., do performing these assessments actually find the org the best candidate? ROI. Becomes part of Talent Acquisition Strategy.

What should employers keep in mind when requiring background checks?

- Local laws and regulations
- Should be the same for all candidates applying for the same job.
- Should be job-related, i.e., there should be a clear connection with the requirements of the job

What should HR consider in their TA strategy regarding background checks?

(Outside of legal requirements,) does the background check truly help us with selecting the best candidate?

What are the general steps in the decision process (when hiring)?

- Organize information regarding selection criteria
- Identify and rank acceptable candidates
- Collect additional info as needed
- Make an offer to the top candidate

What are some considerations to make when organizing and summarizing selection data?

- Consider why information may be incomplete (environmental factors)
- Consider why interview details may be sparse (language or cultural difficulties)
- Consider lack of language ability is not lack of intelligence
- What weight does language ability hav

What are some considerations for prioritizing candidates?

- Consider the data source
- Use a variety of reviewers
- Include someone who understands the candidate's native language
- Consider cultural differences (does the culture expect humility or confidence in interviews)
- Do not rely on a completely mathemat

Contingent job offer

Job offer that is contingent on the candidate passing certain tests or meeting certain requirements, such as medical examination, physical fitness test, or psychological test

Employment offer

An employment offer is an oral or written communication that formally offers the applicant the job.

Employment contract

An employment contract is a written agreement between the organization and an employee that explains the employment relationship. More common outside the US.

Why should we communicate back with nonselected candidates in the interview process?

Protect the employment brand and employee value proposition. Part of Talent Acquisition strategy.

In an assessment center, a candidate is asked to handle a hypothetical situation dealing with typical job-related challenges. Which selection tool is being used?

Simulation. A simulation or situational case study is tailored to reflect typical problems that might be encountered. Trained assessors can evaluate how well the candidate performs.

Most of the supervisory and management staff in a start-up company have limited interviewing experience. Which interview technique will best mitigate this inexperience?

Structured interview

For some supervisory and managerial openings, recruiters use work samples of job situations that include individual and group activities, in-basket exercises, and work-related performance tests to evaluate a candidate's abilities. The results are reviewed

Assessment centers are a method of evaluating candidates who are presented with content-valid workplace situations to which they respond and who are then evaluated on their responses.

An HR manager is recruiting to fill several customer service representative positions in a high-volume call center. Which interview method should the HR manager use to understand the candidates' customer service experience and predict their future perform

The premise of behavioral interviews is that past behavior is the best predictor of future performance.

As part of screening interviews, recruiters use an interview style that focuses on how applicants handled real life situations in the past as a way to qualify them for their openings. What type of interview technique is being used?

Behavioral interviews explore real experiences and how the applicant responded to the experiences to predict future performance.