Bacteriology Chapters 11 &13

Methanogens are microbes that obtain energy from H2 and produce ___ as a by-product.
B- O2
C- CO2
D- CH4
E- lactic acid

D- CH4

Desulfovibio vulgaris produces which corrosive, toxic, foul-smelling gas as a by-product?
A- CO2
B- CH4
C- H2S
D- N2
E- O2

C- H2S

Lactic acid bacteria are anaerobes, meaning that they can grow in environments that do NOT contain
A- glucose
B- O2
C- H2O
D- CO2
E- H2

B- O2

Bacteria that preform nitrogen fixation, including Cyanobacteria and Rhizobia, convert___ to NH3
A- N
B- N2
C- N3
D- NO2
E- NH2

B- N2

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria that use H2O as a source of electrons. What molecules do these bacteria produce as a by-product of photosynthesis?
A- O2
B- NH3
C- CO2
D- S
E- H2S


Rhozobia grow exclusively in specialized nodules on the roots of leguminous plants such as:
A- wheat
B- corn
C- rice
D- peas
E- all the above

D- peas

Purple sulfur bacteria and green sulfur bacteria
A- use the same version of chlorophyll for photosynthesis
B- use the same version of bacteriochlorophyll for photosynthesis
C- use different versions of chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
D- use different vers

D- use different versions of bacteriochlorophyll for photosynthesis

The acidification of streams exposed to mine runoff is directly caused by which specific group of microbes?
A- sulfur-oxidizing bacteria
B- methanogens
C- lactic acid bacteria
D- hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria
E- microaerophiles

A- sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

Armadillos are a natural reservoir for
A- the Ebola virus
B- the Zika virus
C- the HIV virus
D- the bacterium that causes tetanus
E- the bacterium that causes leprosy

E- the bacterium that causes leprosy

The transmission of the bacterium that causes the bubonic plague (the "black death")
A- armadillos
B- fleas and rats
C- mosquitoes
D- ticks and deer
E- all the above

B- fleas and rats

Which of the following infections is NOT sexually transmitted?
A- gonorrhea
B- syphilis
C- chlamydia
D- genital herpes
E- botulism

E- botulism

Opportunistic infections
A- are always lethal
B- occur in individuals with weakened immune systems
C- only occurs in females
D- are transmitted my mosquitoes or other insects
E- involved exclusively prokaryotic microbes

B- occur in individuals with weakened immune systems

Naked viruses do not have
A- an envelope
B- a protein coat
C- spikes
D- a nucleic acid genome
E- a capsid

A- an envelope

Animal DNA viruses usually uncoat and replicate
A- in the cytoplasm
B- in the nucleus
C- in the mitochondria
D- at the plasma membrane
E- none of the above

B- in the nucleus

A provirus is a virus that has
A- not yet acquired and envelope
B- undergone a reverse mutation
C- integrated into a host cell's chromosome
D- killed the host cell by inducing lysis
E- released from a host cell by budding

C- integrated into a host cell's chromosome

According to the Baltimore classification system, Class VI and Class VII viruses
A- use reverse transcriptase
B- undergone a reversion mutation
C- have DNA genome
D- have a RNA genome
E- none of the above

A- use reverse transcriptase

Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for
A- influenza
B- chicken pox
C- smallpox
D- measles

C- smallpox

Unlike DNA polymerases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases ("replicases")
A- are heat stable
B- are less likely to make an error
C- are more likely to make an error
D- are only found in eukaryotic cells
E- are only found in prokaryotic cells

C- are more likely to make an error

Animal virus penetration into animal cells differs from bacteriophage penetration into bacteria mainly because
A- animal virus penetration always occurs by endocytosis
B- the entire animal virus particle enters the cell
C- the animal virus capsule remains

B- the entire animal virus particle enters the cell

Naked viruses like rhinoviruses enter cells by
A- fusing with the plasma membrane of the cell
B- inducing the lysis of the cell
C- injecting genetic material through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm
D- endocytosis
E- all the above

D- endocytosis

The flu vaccine is prepared
A- in vitro using agar plated with bacteria
B- in vitro using animal cell cultures
C- in vitro using test tubes and incubators
D- in vivo using fertilized chicken eggs
E- in vivo using mice or rabbits

D- in vivo using fertilized chicken eggs

The prion that causes mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may best be described as
A- an ancient RNA virus without an envelope
B- a gram positive bacillus
C- a very small acid-fast bacterium
D- a "jumping gene"
E- a misfolded protein

E- a misfolded protein

A fermenting, gram positive spherical bacterium that inhabits the human mouth and contributes significantly to tooth decay

Streptococcus mutans

An endospore-forming rod that produces a neurotoxin and causes a very severe type of food poisoning

Clostridium botulinum

An endospore-forming rod-shaped bacterium that causes tetanus

Clostridium tetani

A hemolytic bacterium that causes strep throat and scarlet fever

Streptococcus pyogenes

A cluster-forming species often found in the human respiratory tract and on human skin; a common cause of skin infections, sinus infections, wound infections, and food poisoning; sometimes resistant

Staphylococcus aureus

An endospore-forming Gram-positive rod that causes a dangerous type of gangrene called "gas gangrene

Clostridium perfringens

A thermophilic bacterium with an outer membrane; first discovered in a geyser in Yellowstone National Park; source of DNA polymerase for PCR ( polymerase chain reaction)

Thermus aquaticus

A beneficial rod-shaped bacterium that inhabits the reproductive tracts of human females

Lactobacillus vaginalis

An obligate aerobe that produces a yellow pigment; it often inhabits human skin and dust and is usually harmless

Micrococcus luteus

A facultative anaerobe that causes the bubonic plague

Yersinia pestis

A rod-shaped species that cause the type of food poisoning called salmonellosis

Salmonella enterica

An obligate intracellular parasite that cause parrot fever

Chlamydophila psittaci

A motile rod that sometimes causes opportunistic infections in humans; it secrets a greenish pigment

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

An intestinal bacterium used very extensively in modern research; many stains are harmless

Escherchia coli

An obligate intracellular pathogen that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Rickettsia rickettsli

A curved rod linked to stomach ulcers and stomach cancers in humans

Helicobacter pylori

A spiral bacterium that causes the sexually-transmitted disease syphillis

Treponema pallidum

A thermos hole that derives energy from hydrogen gas and produces water as a by-product

Aquifex pyrophilus