Micro final + immunity


microbial contamination


absence of significant contamination


remove all microbial life


most resistant

commercial sterilization

killing C. botulinum endospores from canned goods


removal of pathogens from inanimate objects


removal of pathogens from living tissue by chemical methods

hydrogen peroxide

better disinfectant for objects and surfaces, not as antiseptics


removal of microbes from a limited area


lowering microbial counts to meet public health standards such as on eating utensils or public toilets


kills microbes


inhibiting, not killing, microbes

Tyndallization (fractional sterilization)

bacterial populations die at a constant logarithmic rate

effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment depends on:

time of exposure
# of microbes
environment (organic matter, temp, biofilms)
microbial characteristics

Actions of Microbial Control Agents

Damage to cell walls
alteration of membrane permeability
damage to proteins (streptomyocin, sulfanimide)
damage to nucleic acids (acyclovir)

Physical methods of microbial control

Heat, Filtration, Cold, High Pressure, Dessication, Osmotic Pressure, and Radiation

dry heat

direct flaming, incineration, hot air sterilization

direct flaming

burning contaminants to ashes; inoculating loops


the burning of solid waste, has filters to prevent particles from getting in the air

hot air sterilization

items to be sterilized are placed in an oven and heated to 170�C for 2 hours; useful for glassware

moist heat

boiling, autoclave


treating a substance with heat to kill or slow the growth of pathogens, will denature the proteins


membrane filters, and HEPA filters

membrane filters

porous membranes with defined pore sizes that remove microorganisms primarily by physical screening

HEPA filters

remove microorganisms >0.3 �m from gases


refrigerator, lyophilization, and deep freeze


keeps microbes from proliferating


freeze drying

deep freeze

liquid nitrogen

high atmospheric pressure

used for food preservation, fruit juices


food preservation, removing water from food- drying things out

osmotic pressure

pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane


non-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation

non-iodizing radiation

-longer wavelength, but is not very penetrating

ionizing radiation

penetrates further (x-rays, gamma rays) destroys dna


Piece of equipment used to sterilize articles by way of steam under pressure and/or dry heat (121 degree C @ 15psi for 15 min) (30 min for kill load)

radiant energy spectrum

a range of light energy extending from gamma rays to microwaves

UVc rays

have more energy but are absorbed by the ozone layer. may have antiviral qualities

principles of effective disinfection with chemical agents:

time, concentration, organic matter, pH

testing disinfectant effectiveness:

Phenol coefficient load (old method), use dilution tests (research type setting), The disk diffusion method, and e-test

phenol coefficient load

at concentrations above 1% (such as in throat sprays) it has a significant antibacterial effect

carbolic acid


use dilution test

a method of determining the effectiveness of a disinfectant using serial dilutions. Metal cylinders are dipped in test-bacteria and dried, cylinders are placed in disinfectant for 10 min @ 20 degrees C, cylinders are then transferred to culture media to d

disk diffusion method

Evaluates efficacy of chemical agents
Filter paper disks are soaked in a chemical and placed on a culture
Look for zone of inhibition around disks

zone of inhibition

Region around a chemical saturated disc, where bacteria are unable to grow due to adverse effects of the compound in the disc.

Kirby-Bauer method

-standardized method for carrying out disk diffusion test
-sensitivity and resistance determined using tables that relate zone diameter to degree of microbial resistance
-table values plotted and used to determine if concentration of drug reached in body

synergism of antibiotics

where the antibiotics overlap and are more effective together


-Uses strips instead of disks
-Intersection of elliptical zone of inhibition with strip indicates MIC


Minimum inhibitory concentration: smallest concentration of drug that visibly inhibits growth


a carcinogen, joseph lister,
MOA- disruption of plasma membrane, denaturation of enzymes
Preffered Use- rarely used anymore because of its irritating qualities and disagreeable odor, used for throat sprays


Lysol is an example
MOA- disruption of plasma membrane, denaturation of enzymes
Preferred use- environmental surfaces, instruments, skin surfaces, and mucous membranes


triclosan and hexachlorophene
MOA- disruption of plasma membrane
Preferred use- disinfectant, hand soaps, and skin lotions


MOA- disruption of plasma membrane
Preferred Use- skin disinfection, especially for surgical hand scrubbing. Bactericidal.


lasting effect, widely used, capable of killing bacteria


MOA- disruption of plasma membrane
Preferred Use- plant essential oils, used in foods and disinfecting hard surfaces


I, Cl, Br. all are sensitive to light
MOA- iodine inhibits protein function and is a strong oxidizing agent, chlorine forms the strong oxidizing agent hypochlorous acid, which alters cellular components.
Preferred Use- Iodine is an effective antiseptic av


MOA- protein denaturation and lipid dissolution
Preferred Use- bacterial and fungicidal, but not effective against endospores or nonenveloped viruses

heavy metals and their compounds

Ag, Cu, Zn.
MOA- denaturation of enzymes and other essential proteins
Preferred Use- silver nitrate may be used to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum; silver-sulfadiazine is used as a topical cream on burns; copper sulfate is an algicide

ophthalmia neonatorum

A purulent (contains pus) inflammation of the conjunctiva and/or cornea in the newborn.


kills algae

soaps and detergents

surface active agents
MOA- mechanical removal of microbes through scrubbing
Preferred Use- skin degerming and removal of debris

Acid-Anionic Sanitizers

-not certain
MOA-may involve enzyme inactivation or disruption
Preferred Use- sanitizers in dairy and food-processing industries

Quaternary Ammonium compounds

Also known as quats or cationic detergents
MOA- enzyme inhibition, protein denaturation, and disruption of plasma membrane
Preferred Use- Antiseptic for skin, bactericidal, bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and virucidal against enveloped viruses. Used on instr

organic acids

MOA- metabolic inhibition, mostly affecting molds; action not related to their acidity
Preferred Use- control mold and bacterial growth in foods and cosmetics. Sorbic acid and benzoic acid effective at low pH; parabens used in cosmetics, shampoos; calcium

nitrates/ nitrites

active ingredient is nitrite, which is produced by bacterial action on nitrate
MOA- nitrite inhibits certain iron-containing enzymes of anaerobes
Preferred Use- meat products such as ham, bacon, hot dogs, sausage. Prevents growth of Clostridium botulinum


MOA- protein denaturation
Preferred Use- Glutaraldehyde (cidex) this surgical cleaner is less irritating than formaldehyde and used for disinfecting medical equipment

Ethylene Oxide and other gaseous sterilants

MOA- inhibits vital cellular functions
Preferred Use- mainly for sterilization of materials that would be damaged by heat

plasma sterilization

MOA- inhibits vital cellular functions
Preferred Use- used for tubular medical instruments

Supercritical Fluids

MOA- inhibits vital cellular functions
Preferred Use- especially used for sterilizing organic medical implants

Peroxygens and other forms of oxygen

MOA- oxidation
Preferred Use- contaminated water and surfaces; some deep wounds, in which they are very effective against oxygen-sensitive anaerobes


MOA- cell wall, plasma membrane, protein, and nucleic acid.

portal of entry

a way for the causative agent to enter a new reservoir or host:
mucous membranes
respiratory tracts
genitourinary tract

adherence of microbes

will use fimbriae, (slime layer & capsule) glycocalyx

how do microbes penetrate the host defenses

they will use capsules which increase virulence
cell wall components
enzymes that will destroy our RBCs
Antigenic variation- change something on its surface
Invasins- chemical ammunition (makes a weakness in membrane)
Intracellular growth

how do microbes damage host cells

siderophores- weaken and suck Fe away
direct damage
toxins (endotoxins, and exotoxins)
lysogenic conversion
cytopathic effects


Iron-loving chemical elements


Take iron from host iron-binding proteins


toxic substances that bacteria secrete into their environment


A toxic component of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria that is released only when the bacteria die.

lysogenic conversion

a change in the properties of a bacterium conferred by a prophage

portals of exit

Generally same as Portals of Entry:
-Mucous Membranes
-Parenteral Route


A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody


an antibody


the study of what genes are, how they carry info, how info is expressed, and how genes are replicated


all the genetic info in a cell

diploid genome

2 sets of chromosomes. somatic cells.

haploid genome

1 set of chromosomes typical in sex cells


structure containing DNA that physically carries hereditary information; the chromosomes contain the genes


the molecular study of genomes


a segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein

gregor mendel

The father of genetics - Experimented with pea plants


a variation of a particular gene

dominant allele

always expressed

recessive allele

only expressed if its the only one


genetic makeup of an organism


the expression of the genes

catalase +

has a gene to make catalase

catalase -

lacks a catalase making gene

dna expression

genetic info is used within the cell to produce proteins needed for the cell to function

dna recombination

genetic info can be transferred between cells of the same generation. horizontal gene transfer

dna replication

genetic info can be transferred between generations of cells. vertical gene transfer

Nucleotides consist of:

a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and 1 of 4 nitrogenous bases

complementary base pairing

In DNA, T pairs with A; G pairs with C;
RNA, U pairs with A and G pairs with C

antiparallel arrangment

one side of the helix runs in the opposite direction of the other

origin of replication

denotes the area of active replication called the replication fork


separates the strands of the double helix and single stranded binding proteins

single stranded binding proteins

stabilize the newly single stranded regions

DNA gyrase

used to make sure the double stranded areas outside of the replication fork do not super coil

Beta clamp & Clamp holder

help hold dna polymerase in place on the dna


A short segment of DNA that acts as the starting point for a new strand


An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.

continuous synthesis

occurs on the 3' - 5' oriented parent strand, the leading strand

discontinuous synthesis

occurs on the 5'-3' oriented strand, the lagging strand

Okazaki fragments

Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.

DNA polymerase

removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA nucleotides, proofread and facilitate repair of dna

DNA ligase

used to ensure bonding between fragments and the replaced nucleotides


Cut DNA from an exposed end of DNA; facilitate repair


corrects "overwinding" ahead of replication forks by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands

downstream DNA

follows the helicase
From 5' - 3'; it goes faster and is the leading strand
From 3' - 5'; it goes slower and is lagging


takes place inside the nucleus, DNA is used as a template to make mRNA

initiation of transcription

Attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
RNA polymerase binds to a promoter start (start!)

Elongation of transcription

RNA polymerase unzips the DNA and assembles RNA nucleotides using one strand of DNA as a template.

Termination of transcription

RNA polymerase reaches a terminator sequence (Stop codon) and detaches from the template


takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell, info used from the mRNA is used to make a polypeptide


the study of fungi

Function of fungi

recycle chemicals elements, do mitosis and meiosis, and make spores (some during all stages of their life)


fungi that produce both sexual and asexual spores


fungi that produce asexual spores only

fungi cell walls

made of chitin

fungi cell membrane

contain ergosterol, not cholesterol

unicellular fungi

Fission YEASTS divide symmetrically (= cytoplasm)
Budding YEASTS divide asymmetrically (not = cytoplasm)

multicellular fungi

mold, mushroom, mildew. Some fungi are dimorphic, alternating between yeast and mold morphologies

Candida albicans

yeast infection


strands of fungal cells

vegetative hyphae

responsible for the visible mass of growth that appears on the surface of a substrate and penetrates it to digest and absorb nutrients

aerial hyphae

Hyphae of a fungus that grow above the substrate


hyphae with cross walls


hyphae consist of one long, continuous cell


bundles of hyphae


fungal diseases


a toxin produced by a fungus

Kingdom Fungi

a kingdom a of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms, such as mushrooms and molds, that have a cell wall containing chitin; classified under Domain Eukarya

Phylum Zygomycota

Rhizopus (black bread mold) asexual spores are sporangiospores and sexual spores are zygospores


A multicellular organ in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop.

Phylum Ascomycota

sexual spores are ascospores. asexual spores are conidiaspores. consists of Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Candida


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Ascomycota
They do fermentation (ethanol and CO2) look for budding cells


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Ascomycota
Mold (white, black, and green) **opportunist


asexual spores


respiratory disease caused by the fungus aspergillus


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Ascomycota
Mold (on citrus, green and white)


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Ascomycota
Yeast (pathogenic, dimorphic) "cottage cheese discharge" out of vagina. "thrush", orally


oral candidiasis in the newborn that was breast fed

Phylum Basidiomycota

sexual spores are basidid spores. asexual spores (none)


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Basidiomycota
*mushroom, little clusters (fungal sex)

cross section of cap


Reproductive structures that produce sexual spores



fruiting body


thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground


(B) Spores produced in the basidia of basidiomycetes during sexual reproduction


symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. A fungus (usually from Ascomycota) + phototroph (cyanobacteria or green algae)


Ecological relationship between the mycelium of a fungus and the roots of certain plants


Organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances.


photoautotrophs, mostly aquatic, many with cell walls of cellulose, unicellular and multicellular forms. Five main types: brown, red, green, diatoms, and dinoflagellates

brown algae

used in medicines (vaginal dilation). As an additive to cosmetics + foods (thickener). Lithium ion batteries.

Red algae

agar, carrageenan (evap. milk, ice cream). poison and pharmaceuticals

green algae

gave rise to land plants, food, multicellular and unicellular


unicellular, long/slender, short, cell walls of glass like substance of silica, petroleum, can make domoic acid poisoning (ate mussels)


unicellular, toxic, "red tide" algal bloom. PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera- endemic to south pacific + caribbean


A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical reactions involving the parent drug.

What microbe was responsible for the largest parasitic outbreak ever in the US?


Where did this outbreak occur?

Milwaukee, WI

When did this outbreak occur?


What are the three main ways people acquire parasites?

ingest them, sexual intercourse, arthropod vectors

What is the common name for the long, skinny roundworms that cause the diseases river blindness and elephantiasis?

nematode (filarial)

What is the genus of the parasite that causes malaria?

Plasmodium falciparum

What is the specific vector that causes malaria?

female Anopheles mosquito

How have humans tried to combat the parasites?

eradication of parasites, onchocerciasis control program, filtering water, biological warfare between the parasites

Kingdom Protista

Contain one celled eukaryotes such as algae and protozoa.

Kingdom Animalia

a kingdom a of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that are free-moving, and lack cell walls; classified under Domain Eukarya




Phylum Nematoda


Phylum Platyhelminthes. can be divided into segmented and non-segmented

segmented c

Class cestoda "tapeworms


class trematoda -> flukes (blood, bladder, liver)




6 legs. lice, fleas, flies, mosquitoes, and bugs


8-legs. ticks and mites

parasite transmission

1. arthropod vector
2. ingestion
3. sexual contact


ingestion, microbe is very resistant, has to be removed by special filters. Caused the largest parasitic outbreak in U.S. history in 1993 in WI.


Parasitic infection of the gastrointestinal tract and brain and spinal cord. The pathogen, Cryptosporidium, is a one-celled organism commonly found in farm animals. worldwide


intestinal parasite, causes Amoebic Dysentery. Has to be ingested. Can be found in equatorial regions. "travelers diarrhea


has to be ingested. found in equatorial regions. can cause balantidiasis (balantidic dysentery) intestinal parasite, "travelers diarrhea". jelly bean nucleus


has to be ingested. widespread, long incubation (3 weeks) "cyclosporosis


intestinal parasite, ingestion, worldwide, mammals are reservoir, resistant to chlorine (boil and filter) causes Giardiasis


a parasite causing an STD. Sexual contact, worldwide, can be spread through fomites (sex toys, toilet seats, finger nails) Urogenital parasite, causes trichomoniasis. When symptomatic-> yellow green discharge. can cause sterility in males and females. In


(Pelvic lnflammatorv Disease) right or left lower quadrant pain,
abnormal vaginal discharge, fever


can cross placental barriers. ingestion. House cats are biological vectors. In immunocompromised patients


arthropod vector "sand fly". middle east.


Arthropod vector, equatorial, blood parasite. some species cause african sleeping sickness, other species cause Chagas Dz.
In Old World -> Tsetse Fly (African sleeping sickness) damage to CNS
In New World -> Kissing bug (Chagas Dz.) organ damage


(blood parasite that causes malaria)
Arthropod vector- female Anopheles mosquito


plasmodium cells that enter the bloodstream and infect the liver


cells that divide to form gametes


asexual reproduction by multiple fission, found in some protozoa, especially parasitic sporozoans.


active feeding stage; the metabolically active form (vegetative form)


new cells that emerge from the liver and infect red blood cells


separate male and female individuals, sexually dimorphic (humans)


Both male and female reproductive organs in one individual; hermaphroditic

Phylum Nematoda

D. Eukarya
K. Animalia
Phylum - Nematodes
Common name- pinworm, whipworm, intestinal eelworm, hookworm, porkworm

Pinworm (Enterobius)

Humans only for the host, worldwide, dioecious, get it through contact, fomites, food, disease through childhood. (persistent nocturnal anal itching) "Scotch tape test

self limiting

ultimately resolving itself without treatment

Whipworm (Trichuris)

humans for host, tropical and subtropical areas. Causes abdominal pain. Ingestion (rectal prolapse) dioecious.

Intestinal Eelworm ( Ascaris)

humans only, more common in tropical regions, ingestion; intestinal parasite, fecal smear looking for the eggs. Abd. pain and emaciation. Intestinal blockages and can be found in the lungs, anti-helminthic drugs to get them out. Ascarids= zoonotic transmi


zoonotic transmission from cats and dogs

Hookworm (Ancylostoma & Necator)

humans, tropical, contact with moist vegetation, intestines, lungs, lymph nodes, a common cause for anemia, abdominal pain

Porkwork (Trichinella)

Pigs = intermediate host in skeletal muscle. Carnivore= definitive host in intestines. Humans can be definitive host by ingesting undercooked pork; if reinfested humans are the intermediate host. diarrhea, muscle pain, loss of eye movement.

Filarial worms

thread like. always spread by arthropod vectors. river blindness (vector: black fly) elephantiasis (vector: mosquito filariasis)

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

infectious diseases that primarily affect the poorest regions of the world (many of which are located in the tropics) and have not been a priority for funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies, or global policymakers.

North State worms

dog heart worm (spread by mosquitoes)
horsehair worm

Phylum Platyhelminthes

D. Eukarya
K. Animalia
Class- Cestoda Tapeworms, Trematoda Flukes,

Class Cestoda (tapeworms)

segmented. dogs, cattle, fish, pigs, sheep. worldwide (heavier infestation where sanitation is poor)

parts of tapeworm

Scolex- head (little hooks and barbs so it cant be pulled out)
Proglottid- find both reproductive parts here
*can be used to help with autoimmune disease

Class Trematoda (flukes)

liver fluke, blood/bladder fluke

liver fluke

monoecious. (Liver damage, poor fat absorption) tropical, water snails, fish, cattle, crustaceans

blood/bladder fluke

Schistosomiasis (Bill Harzia)
humans are definitive host, water snail is vector and intermediate host
dioecious species. female permanently lives on male.

water snail

the vector and intermediate host in schistosomiasis


a free-swimming larval stage in which a parasitic fluke passes from an intermediate host (typically a snail) to another intermediate host or to the final vertebrate host.

Cercaria antigenic variation

the larva is coated with host's own antigen so that the body doesnt recognize it as foreign. It will then travel through the circulatory system to intestinal blood vessels where it will mature as adult flukes, then the cycle repeats itself.


a debilitating disease caused by a small fluke.


split body, slender female lives permanently in a groove in the body of the male

Phylum Arthropoda

D. Eukarya
K. Animalia
Phylum Arthropoda
Insect - Lice, fleas, mosquitoes, blood sucking flies, and blood sucking bugs
Non-insect- Ticks, mites and dust mite, and scabies mite


(insect) small, wingless, parasitic insects. louse (singular) head lice, body lice, and pubic lice "crabs


lice eggs


(Insect) associated with the plague, spread bacterium Yersinia. endemic murine typhus


(insect) females are the blood suckers. need iron from blood cells. cause Malaria, West Nile virus, zika virus, encephalitis, dengue fever, and yellow fever

blood sucking flies

cause African sleeping sickness (tsetse fly)
Tularemia ( deer fly)
Leishmaniasis (sand fly)
Filiarial dz (black fly)

blood sucking bugs

chagas dz (kissing bug)

non insect

have 8 legs


lyme disease; rocky mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia)

mites and dust mites


Scabies mite

burrow through the skin
human (contact, fomites)

gel electrophoresis

Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel


enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; uses antibodies labeled with enzymes to detect antigen-antibody reactions

innate immunity

non-specific; includes skin, mucous membranes, antimicrobial substances (acids, mucous, cilia) and inflammation, fever and phagocytic responses

adaptive immunity

specific; includes humoral and cellular immunity, this immunity targets an attack for that one specific thing

granular leukocytes

WBC, erthrocytes, megakaryocyte, mast cell, eosinophil, basophil, and neutrophil

agranular leukocytes

monocyte, T-cell, B-cell, natural killer cell

mast cell

A vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger inflammation in response to infection and in allergic reactions. antigen presenting cell

dendritic cell

Antigen-presenting cell. Shows T and B cells what to attack


antigen presenting cell, mast cell and dendritic cells


a simple form of learning that occurs when presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus

pluripotent stem cells

develop in the red bone marrow or fetal liver


A type of white blood cell that make antibodies to fight off infections

B cell

Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses. do 20% of the immune response

T cell

Cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body. do 80% of the immune response

humoral (antibody mediated) immunity

the control of freely circulating pathogens. depends on B cells. forms part of the adaptive immune system

Cellular (cell mediated) immunity

depends on T cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens, reject foreign tissue recognized as nonself, and destroy tumor cells. forms part of the adaptive immune system

naturally acquired active immunity

antigens enter the body naturally; body induces antibodies and specialized lymphocytes

naturally acquired passive immunity

antibodies are passed from mother to fetus via the placenta and breast milk

artificially acquired active immunity

antigens are introduced in vaccines; body produces antibodies and specialized lymphocytes

artificially acquired passive immunity

preformed antibodies in immune serum introduced into body by injection


cell stimulators, include interferon and interleukin


the part of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself

cytotoxic (killer) T cells

white blood cells that recognize and kill cells that are invaded by microorganisms

T-helper cells

go to the lymph nodes, spleen or thymus, activate and sensitize B cells. they get assistance from the B-cells


cytotoxic T lymphocyte


T helper cells, HIV selectively targets these cells

clonal expansion

the mass proliferation of antibody-producing cells by clonal selection.


an increase in number, multiplication

plasma cells

Cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.

Regulatory T cells (Treg)

(also, suppressor T cells) class of CD4 T cells that regulates other T cell responses, tell the B cells to stop

antigenic determinant


Antibodies will bind to epitope and do these two things

1. trigger macrophages
2. keep the foreign cell from entering the host cell


inactive form of protozoa