Organisms that utilize an inorganic source of carbon (that is, carbon dioxide) as their sole source of carbon. Autotrophs make organic compounds from CO2 and does not need to get carbon from organic compounds in other organism
Catabolize reduced organic molecules (such as proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids) they acquire from other organism
Organisms can be catagorized according to whether they use chemicals or light as their energy source for such cellular processes as
anabolism, intracellular transport, and motility
Organisms that acquire energy from redox reactions involving inorganic and organic chemicals which are anerobic aerobic respiration or fermentation.
are organism that use light as their energy source
Organisms can be catagorized into 4 four basic groups based on their carbon and energy sources.
1.Photoautotrophs - energy source light, Carbon source CO2
2. Chemoautoptrophs - energy source Chemical compounds, Carbon source CO@
3. Photoheterotrophs - energy source light, Carbon source organic compounds
4. Chemoheterotrophs - energy source chemical
All organisms cells require electrons or hydrogen atoms for redox reductions. Hydrogen is the most common chemical element in cells. Metabolism is never interupted by a lack of Hydrogens, they are that common.
prokaryotes that need oxygen to live, Must have O2 for cellular respiration, in contrast oxygen is a deadly poison for anaerobes.
A chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound
four toxic forms of oxygen
1. Singlet oxygen 1O2
2. Superoxide radical O2-
3. Peroxide anion O2 2-
4 Hydroxyl radical OH
a molecular oxygen with electons, is a normal molecular oxygen that has been boosted into a higher-energy state and is extremely reactive
certain human white blood cells use it to oxidize pathogens.
formed during an incomplete reduction of O2 during electron transport in aerobes and during metabolism by anaerobes in the presence of oxygen. Superoxide radicals are so toxic and reactive that aerobic organisms must produce superoxide dismutase to detoxi
Anaerobes die from oxygen why?
They are unable to produce superoxide dismutase. so superoxide radicals are formed which kills them.
toxic; microbes have developed enzymes to neutralize it- catalase converts it into oxygen and water; when added to colony of bacteria cells producing catalase, oxygen bubbles are released; peroxidase also breaks down but does not produce oxygen
enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative catalyst
catalase or have only very small amounts, so they can be harmed by the toxic action of hydrogen peroxide.
are the most reactive of the four toxic forms of oxygen, but because hydrogen peroxide does not accumulate in aeorbic cells (due to peroxidase and catalase hydroxyl radicals are virtually eliminated in aerobic cells.
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ex Escherichia coli
do not use Aerobic Metabolism, but do have some enzymes that detoxify oxygen's poisonous forms, so can grow in its presence
What growth medium is used to identify the oxygen requirements of organisms
Liquid thioglycollate growth medium
microbes by this name are aerobic but can only grow in places where the oxygen content is lower than in pure air due to their own production of toxins when exposed to atmospheric air.
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants.
basic chemical substance needed in small amounts; many are important parts of enzymes
organic chemicals that cannot be synthesized by certain organisms (Vitamins, Essential Amino Acids, Purines, Pyrimidines, Cholesterol, NADH, and Heme)
plays an important role in microbila life through its effects on the three deminsional configurations of biological molecules.
Lowest / highest temp a microb can conduct metabolism is called
minimum / maximum growth temp...optimum growth temp - is the temp the microb metabolises the best.
The 4 catagories microbs can be put in due to temp
phychrophiles, -10 to 20 degrees celcius
Mesophiles 10 to 40 degrees celcius
thermophiles 40 to 80 degrees celcius
hyperthophiles 70 to 100 degrees celcius
Explain how extremes in temperature, pH and osmotic and hydrostatic pressure limit microbial growth
All organisms have a range of temp, pH and osmotic/hydrostatic pressure that they prefer and can tolerate.
Temperature- Effects the three-dimensional configurations of bi
Describe how quorum sensing can lead to formation of a biofilm
Biofilms are examples of complex relationships among numerous microorganisms, often different species, attached to a surface (ie. plaque on teeth). In Quorum Sensing microorganisms respond to the density of other microorganisms nearby. Cells secrete
Describe methods for collecting clinical specimens
p 175- table 6.2
Skin, Accessible Membranes (eyes, ears, vagina, throat, mouth, nose, open wounds, etc.) -Sterile swab on surface.
Blood- needle aspiration from vein. Anti-coagulants are in specimen tube.
Cerebrospinal fluid- Needle aspiration from subara
Describe the two most common methods by which microorganisms can be isolated for culture
Streak Plate- most common. Sterile inoculating loop or needle spreads inoculum across surface of a solid medium in petri dishes. The loop streaks a pattern so that CFU's (colony forming units) are separated and not together. Incubation occurs and col
Describe media based on chemical make-up (synthetic or complex) and physical characteristics (liquid, semi-solid, solid)
Nutrient Broth- contains powered beef extract and peptones. It is dissolved in water- LIQUID.
Nutrient agar- You can add 15% agar into hot broth to make it SOLID.
Agar- ia a COMPLEX polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of certain red algae.
Describe functional types of media (selective, differential, anaerobic, transport)
Selective-typically contain substances that favor growth of particular microorganisms or inhibit the growth of unwanted ones. For example, Eosin/Methylene blue/Crystal violet/bile salts are included in media to inhibit growth of Gram+ bacteria wi
Describe the use of special culture techniques (animal and cell cultures, low-oxygen cultures, enrichment cultures)
Animal and Cell- Used when artificial media are inadequate for growing microbes. Grown in animals or if needed, in live cells, such as bird eggs or cultures of living cells.
Low Oxygen- Since many organisms prefer oxygen conditions that are inter
Contrast refrigeration, deep freezing, and lyophilization as methods for preserving cultures of microbes
To store living cells, a scientist must slow the cell's metabolism to prevent excessive accumulation of waste and exhaustion of nutrients in a medium.
Refrigeration: best for short period storage
Deep Freezing: Long term storage. Can be restored year
Describe the events of binary fission
Binary Fission- process by which the cell doubles in size and then divides in half to produce 2 daughter cells of equal size. Most unicellular microorganisms reproduce in this way.
1. When the DNA molecule replicates, it results in the formation of t
Describe logarithmic growth
The growth of binary fission. 1 cell divides and equals two. Two then divide and equal 4. 2 divides and equals 8. Etc. One would have to factor in the amount of time (generation time) the growth takes for each new cell but each time, the cells wo
Explain what is meant by the generation time of bacteria
The time required for a bacterial cell to grow and divide. It varies according to the bacteria and is dependent on its chemical and physical conditions
Draw and label a growth curve; describe what occurs at each phase
Log Phase- Cells are adjusting to their new environment. They actively synthesize enzymes to utilize nutrients available to them.
Log Phase- When exponential growth occurs. Reproductive rate reaches a constant as DNA and protein synthesis are max
Compare and contrast direct and indirect methods of measuring bacterial growth
Direct- Requiring Incubation:
Serial Dilution and viable plate count- used if number of cells in a sample is TOO GREAT TO COUNT. Dilution of a liquid culture, then count the colonies on plates with 25-250 visible colonies and then multiply that n
Compare and contrast the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes