Chapter 16

B) The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen.

Innate immunity is
A) The body's ability to ward off diseases.
B) The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen.
C) The body's defense against a particular pathogen.
D) The lack of resistance.
E) Increased susceptibility to disease.

D) Lysozyme

Which of the following is NOT a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A) Layers of cells
B) Tears
C) Saliva
D) Lysozyme
E) Ciliary escalator

C) Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.

The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
A) Kill microorganisms.
B) Remove microorganisms from body cavities.
C) Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.
D) Remove microorganisms from the upper respiratory tract.
E) All of the above.

A) Neutrophils

Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A) Neutrophils
B) Erythrocytes
C) Lymphocytes
D) Basophils
E) Eosinophils

A) AMPs

TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT
A) AMPs.
B) Flagellin.
C) LPS.
D) PAMPs.
E) Peptidoglycan.

C) C3.

The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway beginning with the activation of
A) C1.
B) C2.
C) C3.
D) C5.
E) C6.

C) Lysozymes

Which of the following does NOT increase blood vessel permeability?
A) Kinins
B) Prostaglandins
C) Lysozymes
D) Histamine
E) Leukotrienes

D) Neutrophils - monocytes

Which of the following choices shows the order in which white blood cells migrate to infected tissues?
A) Macrophages - monocytes
B) Lymphocytes - macrophages
C) Neutrophils - macrophages
D) Neutrophils - monocytes
E) Macrophages - neutrophils

C) Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels.

Margination refers to
A) The adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms.
B) The chemotactic response of phagocytes.
C) Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels.
D) Dilation of blood vessels.
E) The movement of phagocytes through walls of bloo

C) Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages.

Which of the following statements is true?
A) Alpha interferon is an antiviral protein.
B) Alpha interferon promotes phagocytosis.
C) Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages.
D) Alpha interferon acts against specific viruses.
E) Beta

A) Complement

Which of the following is found normally in serum?
A) Complement
B) Interferon
C) Histamine
D) Leukocytosis-promoting factor
E) TLRs

A) Interference with viral replication

Which of the following is NOT an effect of complement activation?
A) Interference with viral replication
B) Bacterial cell lysis
C) Opsonization
D) Increased phagocytic activity
E) Increased blood vessel permeability

A) Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms

Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
A) Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
B) Increased margination of phagocytes
C) Increased diapedesis of phagocytes
D) Inflammation
E) Cytolysis

D) They produce lysozyme.

Which of the following is NOT a way in which normal microbiota provide protection from infection?
A) They provide antibacterial chemicals.
B) They outcompete newcomers.
C) They make the chemical environment unsuitable for nonresident bacteria.
D) They pro

C) Causing formation of phagolysosomes

Which of the following does NOT provide protection from phagocytic digestion?
A) Preventing formation of phagolysosomes
B) Killing white blood cells
C) Causing formation of phagolysosomes
D) Ability to grow at a low pH
E) Biofilms

A) Toll-like receptors

Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding which of the following?
A) Toll-like receptors
B) Lysozyme
C) Complement
D) Lectins
E) Cytokines

B) Goes into lymph capillaries.

The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid
A) Returns to the blood.
B) Goes into lymph capillaries.
C) Is excreted in urine.
D) Is lost as perspiration.
E) None of the above

B) They develop from neutrophils.

Which of the following statements about fixed macrophages is false?
A) They are found in certain tissues and organs.
B) They develop from neutrophils.
C) They are cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system.
D) They are mature monocytes.
E) All of the abov

D) Lysozyme

Which of the following is NOT used by phagocytes to adhere to a microorganism?
A) Trapping a bacterium against a rough surface
B) Opsonization
C) Chemotaxis
D) Lysozyme
E) Complement

B) Fever

Which of the following is NOT an effect of histamine?
A) Vasodilation
B) Fever
C) Swelling
D) Redness
E) Pain

E) To produce antibodies

Which of the following is NOT a function of inflammation?
A) To destroy an injurious agent
B) To remove an injurious agent
C) To wall off an injurious agent
D) To repair damaged tissue
E) To produce antibodies

B) Body temperature is rising.

Chill is a sign that
A) Body temperature is falling.
B) Body temperature is rising.
C) Body temperature will remain the same.
D) Sweating will follow.
E) None of the above.

A) There are at least 30 complement proteins.

Which of the following statements is true?
A) There are at least 30 complement proteins.
B) All of the complement proteins are always active in serum.
C) Factors B, D, and P cause cytolysis.
D) Complement activity is antigen specific.
E) Complement increa

C) Acute local inflammation

Which of the following is NOT a result of complement fixation?
A) Activation of C3b
B) Immune adherence
C) Acute local inflammation
D) Opsonization
E) Cell lysis

B) They inactivate viruses.

Which of the following is NOT part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons?
A) They bind to the surface of uninfected cells.
B) They inactivate viruses.
C) They initiate manufacture of antiviral proteins.
D) They work in cells not produci

A) Polysaccharides and C3b.

The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by
A) Polysaccharides and C3b.
B) C5C9.
C) Antigenantibody reactions.
D) Factors released from phagocytes.
E) Factors released from damaged tissues.

C) Antigen-antibody reactions.

The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by
A) Polysaccharides and C3b.
B) C5-C9.
C) Antigen-antibody reactions.
D) Factors released from phagocytes.
E) Factors released from damaged tissues.

C) Fever.

Activation of C3a results in
A) Acute inflammation.
B) Increased blood vessel permeability.
C) Fever.
D) Attraction of phagocytes.
E) Cell lysis.

C) Produce toxic oxygen products.

Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to
A) Move by chemotaxis.
B) Migrate.
C) Produce toxic oxygen products.
D) Live.
E) None of the above.

A) Complement.

After ingesting a pathogen, lysosomal enzymes produce all of the following EXCEPT
A) Complement.
B) O2-.
C) H2O2.
D) OH?.
E) HOCl.

C) Leakage of cell contents.

Activation of C5-C9 results in
A) Activation of C3.
B) Fixation of complement.
C) Leakage of cell contents.
D) Phagocytosis.
E) Inflammation.

A) Inflammation.

A C-reactive protein (CRP) test was ordered for a patient who recently underwent surgery. The results revealed CRP levels 10 times greater than normal. This indicates
A) Inflammation.
B) A normal response to the trauma of surgery.
C) Abnormally high blood

B) Eosinophil

Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?
A) Basophil
B) Eosinophil
C) Lymphocyte
D) Monocyte
E) Neutrophil

D) Monocyte

Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A) Basophil
B) Eosinophil
C) Lymphocyte
D) Monocyte
E) Neutrophil

D) Natural killer cell

Which one of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A) Basophil
B) Eosinophil
C) Dendritic cell
D) Natural killer cell
E) Neutrophil

B) Transferrins.

Bacteria have siderophores that capture iron; humans counter this by
A) Producing iron.
B) Transferrins.
C) Toxin production.
D) Iron-degrading enzymes.
E) Interferon.

E) Vasodilation

All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?
A) Diapedesis
B) Margination
C) Phagocyte migration
D) Repair
E) Vasodilation

A) Mannose on host membranes.

The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by
A) Mannose on host membranes.
B) Mannose on the parasite.
C) Lectins of the parasite.
D) Gram-negative cell walls.
E) Gram-positive cell walls.

D) Kills pathogens.

Which one of the following is NOT an effect of fever?
A) Increases production of T cells.
B) Increases alpha interferon activity.
C) Increases transferrin production.
D) Kills pathogens.
E) Increases interleukin-1.

A) Deficiency of C3

Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the most severe?
A) Deficiency of C3
B) Deficiency of C5
C) Deficiency of C6
D) Deficiency of C7
E) Deficiency of C8

C) C3 is not involved in the classical pathway.

Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is false?
A) C1 is the first protein activated in the classical pathway.
B) The C1 protein complex is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes.
C) C3 is not involved in

D) Phagocytic digestion.

Bacterial enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase can protect bacteria from
A) Complement.
B) Histamine.
C) Gamma interferon.
D) Phagocytic digestion.
E) Phagocytosis.

B) Coagulating whole blood.

Serum is obtained from blood by
A) Centrifuging whole blood.
B) Coagulating whole blood.
C) Lysing red blood cells.
D) Lysing white blood cells.
E) All of the above.