Cardinal directions

North, South, East, West

Intermediate directions

Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, Southwest


Distance north or south of the equator


Distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees


a unit for measuring angles


a place or position


a particular position or point in space


an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features


how people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another

Human Environment Interaction (HEI)

The way(s) in which people change and or adapt the environment around them to meet their needs.

Absolute location

The exact position of a place on the earth's surface.

Relative location

where a place is located in relation to another place

Aerial photographs

photographic images of Earth's surface taken from the air

Satellite images

pictures of Earth's surface taken from a satellite in orbit

Geographic information systems GIS

A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.


a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map


ways to map earth on a flat surface

Physical maps

show physical, or natural features like elevation changes

Political maps

show the boundaries of states or countries, and identify the location of cities

Special purpose map says

Shows The location or distribution of human or physical features


a list of the symbols used on a map

Compass rose

a diagram of a compass showing direction

Locator map

shows a larger area than the main map

Scale bar

shows how much space on the map represents a given distance on the land