3030 QUIZ 4

how can we understand family functioning

by understanding how each relationship within the family influences the family as a whol

Subsystem of the family

-sub-relationships in a family
-each subsystem influences every other subsystem in the family
-a change in any family member or family subsystem results in a period of disequilibrium until the family system adjusts to the change

reciprocal socialization

the process by which children and adolescents socialize their parents just as parents socialize their children
-each member is a participant in several subsystem
-the behavior of one member changing can influence behaviors of other members


a child's genotype evokes a response from others. like a parent


a child's genotype drives selection into certain environments

how does reciprocal socialization relate to gene environment correlation

through active and evocative correlations

relationship between marital relationships and parenting

happily married parents are more sensitive, responsive, warm, and affectionate toward their children
*supports "spillover" hypothesis

multiple developmental trajectories

the fact that adults follow one trajectory and children and adolescents follow another one
*how these trajectories mesh is important to various family tasks
*key points in adolescence: entry to middle/high school, puberty, entry to college

parental changes affecting relationships

-marital satisfaction
-economic burdens
-career reevaluation
-time perspective
-health and body concerns
*for most parents marital satisfaction increases after they leave home

adolescent changes affecting relationships

-heightened conflict during pubertal growth *ages 11 to 17
-expectations change
-push for more independence

clicker: cognitive changes in adolescence that contribute to change in parent-adolescent relationships include all of the following except

decreased cognitive sophistication

Parents as managers

-help adolescents reach full potential
-serve as regulators of opportunities for social contact with peers, friends, adults
-positively related to student's grades, self-responsibility, and less school-related problems
-benefits of a structured/organized

parental monitoring

supervising adolescent's choice of social settings, activities, and friends
-adolescents disclosure to parents about whereabouts may be even more important

authoritarian parenting

-high demandingness/emphasis on rules
-low responsiveness/warmth/communication

Authroritative parenting

-high demandingness/emphasis on rules
-high responsiveness/warmth/communication

disengaged parenting

-low demandingness/emphasis on rules
-low responsiveness/warmth/communication

indulgent parenting

-low demandingness/emphasis on rules
-high responsiveness/warmth/communication

children of authoritarian parents

-Become conscientious, obedient, and quiet but not especially happy
-Feel guilty or depressed and blame themselves when things do not go well
-Rebel as adolescents and leave home before age 20
*some aspects might have positive outcomes depending on contex

children of permissive parents

-be unhappy and lack self-control, especially in peer relationships
-suffer from inadequate emotional regulation
-be immature and lack friendships (main reason for their unhappiness)
-continue to live at home, still dependent, in early adulthood

children of authoritative parents

-be successful, articulate, happy with themselves, and generous with others
-Be well-liked by teachers and peers, especially in societies in which individual initiative is valued

children of uninvolved parents

-be immature, sad, lonely, and at risk of abuse
-may have many social and cognitive problems

culture/ethnicity on parenting styles

-African American, Latino, and Asian American parents use authoritarian
-non-latino white parents use authoritative

criticism of parenting styles

-do not capture the important themes of reciprocal socialization and synchrony
-a parent might parent different as children respond to their unique genotypes/ evocative genotype correlations
-some parents use a combination of styles
-styles are too broad

secure attachment

infants use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment
-theorized to be an important foundation for psychological development later
-develop a healthy "working model" of relationships

insecure attachment

theorized to be related to difficulties in relationships and problems later in development

secure attachment outcomes

positive peer relations, emotion regulation capacities, more securely attached in romantic relationships

running away is linked to

-often a gradual process
-linked to lack of parental support, school disengagement, depressive symptoms. and substance use
-many are from abusive homes

how many youth run away

1.6 million a year
-4.2 million are homeless
-1/4 of these are throwaways whose parents forced to leave

characteristics of runaways

1. involved in criminal activity
2. use illicit drugs
3. had problems at school
4. had psychological difficulties
5. more likely to identify as LGBTQ

street children

-100 million worldwide
-family dysfunction
-family breakdown due to AIDS
-parental substance abuse
-physical/sexual abuse

which of the following about birth order is true

birth order shows a limited capacity to predict adolescent behavior

birth order

younger- better peer relationships
middle-better negotiating skills
older- more achievement oriented
*often been overemphasized

sibling roles

-80% of us adolescents have siblings
-conflict, helping, sharing, teaching, emotional support, and communication are dimensions
*caregiver is the most common sibling relationship in traditional
-act as protective factors

3 important characteristics of sibling relationships

1. emotional quality of the relationships
2. familiarity and intimacy of he relationship
3. variation in sibling relationships

siblings and substance use

-largely influenced by their shared environment rather than their shared genetics
-linked by adolescents buying alcohol for siblings

although traits like personality have negligible ______ influences, adolescent substance use seems to have substantial

shared environment

function of family

provide love, nurturance, and affection

divorce rate

-ab 50% of the current young generation are expected to have divorced parents by their late teens
-divorce rate has only decreased due to decreased marriage rate

single-parent household

-mothers represent 90% of custodial parents
-also a rise in proportion of children born outside of marriage
-23% of households
-more in southeast

dual-earner families

Employment among women with school-aged children has increased from about 10% to 70%

divorced parent child outcomes

-behavior problems
-psychological distress
-lower academics
-substance abuse
-earlier sexual activity
-more likely to receive mental health treatment
-less likely to attend college

can children of divorced parents overcome it?

-most adolescents completely cope
-many adverse outcomes are temporary

what factors increase risks associated with divorce

-adolescent adjustment prior
-personality and temperament
-developmental status
-custody issues

family processes in divorce

-harmonious divorced parents who use authoritative parenting show improved adjustment
-parental conflict linked to emotional problems. insecure social relationships, and antisocial behavior

socioeconomic status on divorced families

-custodial mothers' income decreases 25 to 50% after divorce compared to 10% for custodial fathers
-accompanied by increased workloads, high job instability, and moves to less desirable neighborhoods/schools

boundary ambiguity

the uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is in or out of the family and who is performing or responsible for certain family system tasks