# Science Study Guide

Define and give examples of thermal energy & kinetic energy.

Thermal energy is the movement of molecules due to heat being added. Kinetic Energy is when molecules are in motion

Describe expansion and contraction of matter as a result of changes in Thermal Energy and resulting Kinetic energy.

When thermal energy is added the space between molecules to expand and add more kinetic energy. When thermal energy decreases the space between the molecules contracts and kinetic energy decreases.

Explain how molecules move and how spacing changes when they gain or lose thermal energy.

When thermal energy is spacing between molecules increases and the molecules move more.

Illustrate and describe the three main states of matter including molecular movement, shape & volume, amount of space between molecules and examples of each state)

Gas= Molecules are far apart, molecules are moving fast past one another, can change shape and volume
Liquid= Molecules slide past one another, Molecules moving at a medium speed, can change shape but not volume
Solid= Molecules vibrate, molecules move sl

Explain the terms related to changing states of matter: melting, vaporization (evaporation & boiling), condensation, freezing, sublimation, deposition (provide examples of each and explain what happens with spacing of molecules and amount of kinetic energ

Melting= Solid to Liquid
Vaporization= Liquid/Solid to gas
Evaporation= liquid to gas
Boiling= Liquid bubbling hot
Condensation= Gas to Liquid
Freezing= Liquid to solid
Sublimation= Solid to gas (skips liquid stage)

Define density and explain the relationship between density of matter and changes in kinetic energy.

Density is how close together molecules are and solids are the most dense while gas is the least dense.

Explain what happens with the temperature of matter as it changes from one state to another.

(Ex: When ice is heated it turns to liquid and when liquid is heated it turns to gas)

Define cohesion.

Cohesion is when molecules stick together.

Explain how cohesion changes as kinetic energy increases.

When kinetic energy is increased cohesion is decreased.

The tool used to measure kinetic energy:

Joules?

. Explain how air pressure changes with changes in thermal energy.

When thermal energy is added air pressure increases?

Explain what can be done to limit thermal energy transfer.

One can place insulation between what they wish to have reduced thermal energy from