Bio 225: Chapter 4

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All cells contain which of the following characteristics?

-Cell membrane
-Chromosomes
-Ribosomes

Viruses are not considered living things because they only show signs of life when they are inside a host BLANK.

Cell

The two major types of prokaryotic cells are BLANK and BLANK.

-bacteria
-archaea

Bacterial appendages can be divided into which two functional groups?

-Provide motility
-Provide attachment sites or channels

Which appendage(s) provide motility?

-Flagellum
-Axial filaments

Which of the following is considered to be the basic unit of life?

Cell

Which of the following are characteristics inherent to life?

-Metabolism
-Heredity
-Growth and development

Prokaryotic cells evolved on Earth about how many years ago?

3.5 billion years

Bacterial appendages that provide attachment sites or channels are called BLANK and BLANK

-fimbriae
-pili

Which of the following describes a single, polar flagellum?

Monotrichous

Appendages that propel bacterial cells through an aqueous environment include BLANK and axial filaments

flagella

The movement of an organism away from a chemical repellent is called BLANK chemotaxis.

negative

Which of the following bacteria could exhibit phototaxis?

Photosynthetic bacteria

Which of the following bores through the stomach lining and causes gastric ulcers?

Helicobacter pylori

What is the name for corkscrew-shaped bacteria?

Spirochetes

Which of the following describes a random arrangement of flagella distributed all over the bacterial cell?

Peritrichous

Which of the following is the movement towards or away from a chemical stimulus?

Chemotaxis

Which of the following describes the movement towards or away from light?

Phototaxis

A(n) BLANK filament is a periplasmic flagellum found in some spirochete bacteria.

axial

Which of the following bacteria use their flagella to invade mucus membranes and cause infections?

-Vibrio cholerae
-Helicobacter pylori

BLANK are spiral-shaped bacteria characterized by periplasmic flagella and display a worm-like mode of locomotion.

Spirochetes

Identify which of the following are external structures used primarily for direct contact interactions with other cells.

-Fimbriae
-Pili

Which of the following describes a cluster of flagella emerging from the same site?

Lophotrichous

Bacterial pili are composed of the protein BLANK.

Pilin

Elongated, rigid tubes on gram-negative bacteria that are involved in the transfer of DNA from one cell to another are called which of the following?

Conjugation pili

Twisting or flexing of spirochete bacteria is attributed to which of the following?

Axial filaments

The presence of type IV pili cause a type of twitching movement in bacteria of which of the following genera?

Pseudomonas

The BLANK is a polysaccharide protective coating outside of the bacterial cell wall that is called either a capsule or slime layer based on its structure.

glycocalyx

Bacteria are able to attach to surfaces and other bacteria using the surface appendages known as BLANK and BLANK

-fimbriae
-pili

Pili are typically used for which of the following?

Conjugation

The transfer of DNA between bacterial cells is called BLANK.

Conjugation

Which structure is most closely associated with biofilm formation?

Slime layer

Neisseria gonorrhoeae binds to the epithelial cells of the reproductive tract by means of which of the following?

Type IV pili

Which are the two main functions of the glycocalyx?

-Protection
-Adherence

Identify the two main components of the cell envelope in most bacteria.

-Cell membrane
-Cell wall

The BLANK is an extracellular material that is closely associated with biofilm formation.

glycocalyx

What is the glycocalyx?

An extracellular coating that provides protection to the cell

The cell envelope of gram- BLANK bacteria is composed of an outer membrane, cell wall, and a cell membrane.

Negative

Peptidoglycan in the cell BLANK provides the structural support necessary to protect bacteria from lysis due to internal pressure.

Wall

The cell envelope encloses the BLANK

cytoplasm

The cell wall in bacteria is primarily composed of BLANK

peptidoglycan

Which of the following occurs when a cell breaks or ruptures?

lysis

What structural difference is found in gram-positive cells but not in gram-negative cells?

Single cell membrane

Which of the following prevents the rupture of bacterial cells by internal osmotic pressure?

Cell wall

The Gram- BLANK cell wall contains peptidoglycan, teichoic acid, and lipoteichoic acid.

positive

Identify the area between the cell wall and cell membrane in gram-positive bacteria.

Periplasmic space

Peptidoglycan is a component of the cell wall of which of the following organisms?

Bacteria

Endotoxin is toxic to which of the following cells?

Human and other mammalian cells

Which of the following antibiotics affect the integrity of the cell wall of bacteria, thereby making them susceptible to lysis?

-Penicillin
-Cephalosporin

Endotoxins (LPS) can stimulate fever and shock during which gram-negative infections?

-Typhoid fever
-Meningitis

The bulk of the Gram-positive cell wall is a homogeneous sheath of which of the following?

Peptidoglycan

The BLANK bacteria naturally have no cell wall, but have a cytoplasmic membrane that is stabilized by sterols.

mycoplasma

The BLANK space is located between the cell wall and cell membrane in gram-positive bacteria and is a site for the temporary storage of enzymes.

Periplasmic

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is classified as is a(n) BLANK

endotoxin

BLANK diphtheriae and BLANK pyogenes are gram-positive bacteria that have toxic properties due to proteins on their cell walls.

-Corynebacterium
-Streptococcus

The cell membrane consists of a(n) BLANK bilayer with embedded BLANK

-phospholipid
-proteins

The cell membrane surrounds a complex solution of organic materials and salts that is referred to as BLANK

cytoplasm

Identify the term for multiple shapes and sizes among cells of the same species.

Pleomorphism

Which is the active, growing state of endospore-forming bacteria?

Vegetative

Identify the area between the cell wall and cell membrane in gram-positive bacteria.

Periplasmic space

The depletion of nutrients, especially amino acids, is a stimulus for BLANK in bacteria.

sporulation

Endotoxin is toxic to which of the following cells?

Human and other mammalian cells

Identify the major structure component of the cell membrane.

Phospholipids

Which is the major component of cytoplasm?

water

BLANK BLANK in endospores removes water and leaves the endospore very dehydrated.

-Calcium
-dipicolinate

Which of the following is formed during bacterial sporulation?

Endospore

When a rod-shaped bacterium is short and plump it is called a(n) BLANK and if it is gently curved it is called a(n) BLANK

-coccobacillus
-vibrio

Once a vegetative bacterial cell is committed to sporulation the cell is called a(n) BLANK

sporangium

Which of the following are methods used to identify bacteria?

-Serological analysis
-Bacterial biochemistry
-Cell morphology
-Genetic techniques

The heat resistance of bacterial endospores has been linked to high concentrations of which of the following?

Calcium dipicolinate

What is a spherically-shaped bacterial cell termed?

Coccus

Which of the following is the major factor that stimulates endospore formation?

Depletion of nutrients

Which term describes bacteria that do not use oxygen in their metabolism?

Anaerobic

If microbiologists only used the Gram stain and shape to identify bacteria, we could not assign bacteria to a more specific level than which of the following?

Class

Bacteria that use the energy of sunlight to synthesize all of their required nutrients are called which of the following?

Photosynthetic

Identify the major structure component of the cell membrane.

Phospholipids

Where do obligate intracellular parasites live?

Inside a host cell

Identify the structure that is absent in bacteria and archaea.

Nucleus

What are the three most common shapes of bacterial cells?

-Coccus
-Bacillus
-Spirillum

Aerobic bacteria are termed aerobic because they use BLANK in their metabolism.

oxygen

Most bacteria are which of the following?

Heterotrophic

A(n) BLANK BLANK parasite requires a host cell in order to survive.

-obligate
-intracellular

The ribosomal subunit structures in archaea are similar to which of the following?

Eukaryotic cells

Identify the structure that is absent in bacteria and archaea.

Nucleus