biology: chapter 22 quiz

The first plants on Earth were _________.


Losing excessive amounts of water through evaporation may affect a plant's ability to carry out ____________.


The shift between phases in the plant life cycle is known as _______________.

alternation of generations

Plants need to exchange _____________________ in order to carry out the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.

carbon dioxide & oxygen

____________ include plants whose cells form multicellular groups but lack specialization.


The life cycle of a plant shifts between a _____________ phase and a _____________ phase.

sporophyte; gametophyte

Most plants are ___________.

multicellular, eukaryotic autotrophs

Plants use the energy of sunlight to _________.

carry out photosynthesis

The ancestors of land plants likely evolved from ________________.

an organism similar to green algae.

If plants need oxygen for cellular respiration, then why do plants release oxygen into the atmosphere?

More oxygen is produced during photosynthesis than the plant needs for cellular respiration, so the plant needs to release the extra oxygen.

Which of the following statements about green algae is true?
a. They are found in dry areas on land
b. Evidence suggests they were the first plants
c. They are multicellular plants.
d. Like other pants, they have specialized structures.

b. Evidence suggests they were the first plants.

In which of the following environments are green algae NOT found?
a. salt water
b. fresh water
c. moist areas on land
d. dry areas on land

d. dry areas on land

Which of the following is NOT a reason green algae are classified as plants?
a. They have cellulose in their cell walls.
b. They have chlorophyll a and b
c. They have genes similar to genes in land plants
d. They are single-celled organisms.

d. They are single-celled organisms

Of the following locations, you would most likely find mosses growing in:
a. hot, dry mineral-poor soil
b. sandy soil near a beach
c. shaded ground near a small pond
d. exposed ground with direct sun

c. shaded ground near a small pond

Because bryophytes do not have vascular tissue, they

grow close to the ground

Xylem tissue is important because it

can conduct water over long distances

Many green algae for multicellular _____________.


_________ carries solutions of nutrients and food produced by photosynthesis.


Most photosynthesis takes place in the __________ stage of the moss life cycle.


___________ is the scientific name for the group of plants that includes mosses.


Acorns, pine nuts, and beans are examples of _________________.


The living plant within a seed represents the early developmental stage of the ___________ phase of the plant life cycle.


In seed formation, fertilization does not require ______________.


The gametophytes usually develop in reproductive structures known as ____________ or _____________.

cones; flowers

In which part of a pine tree are pollen grains produced?

pollen cones

Which is one entire male gametophyte of a gymnosperm?

a haploid nucleus / a pollen grain

The structures of gymnosperms in which the female gametophytes develop are called _________.


How much time does the conifer life cycle typically take to complete?

2 years

In gymnosperm reproduction, what takes the place of water in the transfer of sperm to eggs?

pollen tubes

_______________ are seed plants that produce flowers and fruits.


Flowering plants first appeared during the ___________________ Period.


The seeds of flowering plants are encased in __________.


The success of angiosperms on land is attributed to their flowers, which attract animals to their plants, and to their fruits, which disperse ___________.


Which plant's discovery caused botanists to rearrange the classification of plants?


What major group of angiosperms is by far the largest?


What type of plants include rose shrubs, oaks, and grape vines?

Woody plants

What type of plants include sunflowers, dandelions, and petunias?

Herbaceous plants

List the basic needs of a plant.

sunlight, gas exchange, water and minerals (SGWM)

How did the relative lack of water on land affect how plants evolved?

Plants evolved their structures to limit the loss of water and speed the uptake of water from the ground. This is to adapt to the lack of water.

What do plants simultaneously absorb when they absorb water?


Why is it important for leaves to be constructed in a certain way for plants?

so they can obtain the necessary sunlight for photosynthesis

How might the adaptation of specialized water-conducting tissue have helped land plants meet challenges to life on land? Explain.

The specialized water tissues allowed plants to preserve more water from the ground.

Which phrase is used to describe a plant's life cycle?

alternation of generations

Compare the gametophyte and sporophyte stages of plant life cycles. Which stage is haploid? Which is diploid?

The gametophyte phase is haploid, and the sporophyte phase is diploid.

In what kind of environments are green algae found?

Green algae are found in fresh and salt water environments. They reside in moist areas to absorb moisture and nutrients directly from their surroundings.

How are green algae similar to and different from other plants?

Similarities: contain photosynthetic pigments, same cell wall composition as large, complex plants ; Differences: most green algae are single cells or branching filaments, do not contain specialized tissues to adapt to dry land

Why are bryophytes small?

Because they lack a specialized tissue called vascular tissue. The bryophyte cannot hold a tall structure without strong cells walls provided by the vascular tissue.

How is water essential to the life cycle of a bryophyte?

Water provides an environment where there is enough water for sperm to swim to an egg cell during fertilization.

What function do vascular tissues allow?

they make it possible for plants to move fluids through their bodies against the force of gravity

The size of plants increased dramatically with the evolutions of vascular tissue. How might these two events be related?

they contain tubes hardened with a substance called lignin. Cell walls are hardened by lignin, and thus the walls support a tall plant structure.

List three adaptations of seed plans that allow them to reproduce with open water.

a reproductive process that takes place in cones or flowers, the transfer of sperm by pollination, the protection of embryos in seeds

Pollination is a process that occurs only in seed plants. What process in seedless plants is analogous to pollination?

swimming of male gametes to female gametes

Describe how fertilization takes place in a gymnosperm/

Mature sporophyte trees produce male and female cones containing gametophytes. The male cones release multitudes of pollen grains in the wind that eventually stick to the scales of a female cone. The pollen grain is then pulled inside toward the ovule.

Classify the following structures from the pine life cycle as haploid or diploid: pollen tube, seed cone, embryo, ovule, seedling

Haploid: pollen tube ; Diploid: seed cone, ovule, embryo, seedling

What reproductive structures are unique to angiosperms? Briefly describe the function of each.

- flowers: aid in fertilization by attracting pollen-carrying insects, contain ovaries that surround an protect the seeds
- fruits: also carry ovaries, disperse the seeds inside through the wall of the fruit

Which are more likely to be dispersed by animals - the seeds of an angiosperm or seeds of a gymnosperm? Explain your reasoning.

The seeds of an angiosperm are more likely to be dispersed because flowers allow the seeds to be spread through pollination by animals. Fruits allow the spread of seeds across a long range of distance through digestion.

What are three common ways to categorize angiosperms?

the number of seed leaves, the strength & composition of stems, the number of growing seasons they live in

How do the methods of categorization of angiosperms differ from scientific classification methods?

they do not reflect evolutionary relationships

Is it useful or misleading to categorize angiosperms in ways that do not reflect evolutionary relationships? Defend your opinion.

misleading; anyone can categorize plants by characteristics rather than using advanced technique

What do plants provide?

the base for food chains on land and shade, shelter, and oxygen for all animals

The oldest fossil evidence of plants dates from about _____ million years ago.


Kingdom Plantae includes

trees, shrubs, grasses, mosses, and ferns

Plants use __________ to carry out photosynthesis. (absorbs sunlight)


Cell walls of plants are made of ________.


The diploid phase of the plant life cycle is called the __________________ generation.


The haploid phase of the plant life cycle is known as the __________________ generation.


In early plants, oxygen came from _________ and ____________.

algae; cyanobacteria

Botanists divided the plant kingdom into ___ groups based on three important features.


What are the three important features botanists based their categorization of the plant kingdom on?

specialized water-conducting tissues, seeds, flowers,

Cone-bearing plants: _____ species (Gymnosperms)


Ferns and Relatives: ________ species


Mosses and Relatives: __________ species


Flowering Plants: __________ species (Angiosperms)


Inside the seeds of angiosperms are tiny embryonic leaves called ____________.


_____________ are the seeds of one group of angiosperms that have one cotyledon

Monocots (Monocotyledons)

_____________ are the seeds of another group of angiosperms that have two cotyledons

Dicots (Dicotyledons)

The veins of monocot leaves are _________ to each other


The leaves of ________ usually have netlike veins.


ex. tulips, daffodils, irises, lilies, palm trees


ex. buttercups, peas, roses, sunflowers, maple trees, and dandelions


The leaf blade of grasses indicates whether they are monocots or dicots based on _____________.

leaf veins

What are the three principal organs of seed plants?

roots, stems, and leaves

What do roots absorb and transport?

water and dissolved nutrients

What do roots anchor?

plants to ground

What do roots prevent?


What do roots provide for plants?

protection from soil bacteria and fungi

What are the two main types of roots?

taproots and fibrous roots

Characterized by having one main root from which smaller branch roots emerge


ex. dandelions, carrots, beets, radish


Characterized by having a mass of similarly sized roots

fibrous roots

Most __________ have fibrous root systems


Plants with __________ root systems are excellent for erosion control because the mass of roots cling to soil particles.


What do stems of plants produce?

leaves, branches, flowers

What do stems do to aid in photosynthesis?

hold leaves up to sunlight

Stems transport substances between _______ and ________.

root; leaves

The structure of a leaf is optimized for _______________ and _______________.

absorbing light; carrying out photosynthesis

The leaves are the _________________ of the plant used to convert sunlight into food.

photosynthetic organ

Pores within the leaf that open to let CO2 in and O2 out


guard _______ open and close


waxy covering on leaf that prevents water loss


Bryophytes are non-_____________.


Bryophytes are confined to moist habitats because they need water for ___________________.

sexual reproduction

Bryophytes are commonly found in:

wetlands, rain forests, and roadside ditches

Bryophytes are generally shorts than ______ tall.

20 cm

What are the 3 classes of bryophytes?

mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

Fine-like roots that anchor bryophytes


Water and nutrients move from cell to cell by _________ in bryophytes.


Most common bryophytes


bryophytes with a sponge-like feature that makes them useful in oil spills, and potting soils


seedless vascular plants

ferns and relatives

dominant land plant 300 million years ago

ferns and relatives

What are the two groups seed plants are divided into?

gymnosperms and angiosperms

the most ancient surviving seed plants


seeds often found in a cone


leaves are usually needlelike


do shed their needles, just not all at once - usually 2 to 4 years


600 species (pine, fir, cedar, hemlock)


all produce seeds in reproductive structures called flowers


flowers contain _______, which surround and protect the seed.


As the seeds mature, the flowers change into a ______.


covered seed


mature ________ are scattered, or dispersed, along with the fruit


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of plants?
a. eukaryotic cells
b. cell wall containing chitin
c. multicellular structure
d. chlorophyll

b. cell walls containing chitin

The first land plants likely evolved from ___________.

green algae

Two gases that plants must exchange are ___________________ and ___________________.

oxygen; carbon dioxide

Recent changes in the classification of the plant kingdom are based on _______________________________.

studies comparing DNA sequences

List the features biologists use to distinguish among the major plant groups.

specialized water-conducting tissues, seeds, flowers, embryonic formation

Under unfavorable conditions, the green alga Chlamydomonas reproduces by forming a ____________.

diploid zygote

The dominant stage of a moss is the ___________.


Water is carried upward from the roots to every part of a vascular plant by ___________.


The leaves of ferns are called ____________.


The underground stems of a fern are called _________________.


What are two examples of colonial green algae?

Spirogyra (long, threadlike filaments); Volvox (cells arranged to form hollow spheres)

Describe two ways that a lack of lignin limits the height of bryophytes.

cell walls are not hardened because of the lack of lignin, water cannot be carried against the pull of gravity

In the life cycle of a moss, what environmental conditions are necessary for fertilization?

there has to be enough water for sperm to swim to an egg cell

spore capsule in which haploid spores are produced by meiosis


What are tracheids? What is their function in a vascular plant?

hollow plant cells in xylem with thick cell walls strengthened by lignin; allow water to move through a plant

How was the ability to produce lignin significant to the evolution of plants?

it allowed plants to grow high above the ground

Compare the structure and function of rhizomes, rhizoids, and roots.

rhizomes - found in ferns; underground stems, rhizoids - found in mosses; thin filaments, roots - found in seed plants; absorb & transport water and nutrients

Describe a fern gametophyte.

thin, heart-shaped; haploid; grows independently of the sporophyte

All of the following are characteristics of gymnosperms EXCEPT:
a. vascular tissue
b. seeds
c. cones
d. flowers

d. flowers

The male reproductive structures of seed plants are called _____________________.

pollen grains

The structures on a pine tree that contain the gametophytes are _______________.


What is the function of a seed coat?

surrounds and protects the embryo and keeps the contents of the seed from drying out

How do gymnosperm seeds differ from angiosperm seeds?

gymnosperm: female cones bear seeds directly on the inside surfaces of scales; angiosperms: seeds are enclosed in a layer of ovary tissue

What reproductive adaptations allow conifers to live in dry habitats?

the direct transfer of pollen to the female cone allows fertilization to take place without water

In angiosperms, the mature seed is surrounded b a structure called a _____________.


A plant that has a two-year life cycle is a ______________.


How does the life span of an annual differ from that of a perennial?

annual: 1 year, perennial: 4 years