When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.
When digested, fats are broken down into _____.
both glycerol and fatty acids
Starch is a type of _____.
Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.
Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?
Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.
Protein digestion begins in the _____.
What is the main component of gastric juice?
What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?
The gastrovascular cavity differs from the alimentary canal in that only the gastrovascular cavity _____.
has only a single opening
Which organ converts fructose to fat?
food being taken in, taken apart, and taken up
preassembled organic molecules and minerals; materials that an animal cannot assemble from simple organic molecules
essential amino acids
amino acids required by animals that must be obtained from food in prefabricated form
essential fatty acids
fatty acids required by animals that must be obtained from food
organic molecules that are required in the diet in small amounts
inorganic nutrients, like iron and sulfur, that are required in small amounts
diet that lacks essential nutrients or consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires
strain of rice that synthesizes pigment beta caroten to vitamin A
diet that fails to provide adequate sources of chemical energy
4 stages of food digestion
the act of eating or feeding
food is broken down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
the animal cells take up small molecules like amino acids and simple sugars
undigested material passes out of the digestive system
breakdown of food particles outside the cell
functions in digestion as well as in distribution of nutrients throughout the body
a complete digestive tract that allows animals to ingest food while earlier meals are still being digested
4 feeding mechanisms of animals
1. filter feeding
2. substrate feeding
3. fluid feeding
4. bulk feeding
strain small organisms/ food from the surrounding medium (aquatic animals)
animals that live in or on their food surfaces
suck nutrient rich fluid from a living host
most animals that eat large pieces of food
alternations waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal that helps push food through the digestive system
ringlike valves that can close off the alimentary canal to regulate the passage of materials between compartments
the mouth and the first step of digestion
deliver saliva through the ducts to the oral cavity
an enzyme found in saliva that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into polysaccharides in maltose
provides most of the protective effects of saliva
ball shaped mixture of food and saliva the tongue creates before swallowing
throat region that opens to two passage ways:
flap of tissue that prevents food/water entering the trachea
stores food and