AP Biology Biochemistry

Organic Compounds

Contain carbon (and hydrogen)

Organic

Means "from life

Carbon/hydrogen backbones called

Hydrocarbons

Functional groups attached which give the compound its identity

(formula for hydrocarbon is CnH2n+2)

Each carbon can make

Four bonds

The eight functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life:

Hydroxyl Group, Carbonyl Group (ketone/aldehyde), Carboxyl Group, Amino Group, Sulfhydryl Group (Thiol), Phosphate Group, Methyl Group, Ester Group

Ester

Formed when the "H" from a carboxylic acid reacts with another molecule

Monomers

Compounds usually assembled from basic building blocks

Polymers

Formed by monomers put together

Condensation reactions (aka Dehydration Synthesis)

Put them together (XH + XOH -> XX + H2O)

Hydrolysis

Breaks them apart (XX + H2O -> XH + XOH)

Isomers

Organic compounds with same chemical formula but different structural arrangements. Very important because some isomer of a compound can react differently than others!

Carbohydrates

Means "Carbon and Water

Formula for Monosaccharides is

(CH2O)n

Monosaccharides

Are building blocks

Glucose and Fructose

Are 6 carbon monosaccharides- part of DNA and RNA

Sucrose and Lactose

Are disaccharides

Carbohydrates

Can be drawn as linear chains or folded rings

Monosaccharides

C6H12O6

Polysaccharides

Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin, Peptidoglycan

Starch

How plants store energy

Glycogen

How animals store energy in liver and muscle cells

Cellulose

Structural component in plant cell walls

Chitin

Insect's exoskeletons and fungi walls

Peptidoglycan

Bacterial cell walls

Polysaccharide formulas

CnH2nOn minus of water molecules used to bind them

Lipids

insoluble(do not dissolve) in water=main characteristic

3 types of Lipids

Fats/oils, phospholipids, Steroids

Fats and Oils

Contain 3 fatty acids and a glycerol

Fats and Oils

Also called triglycerides

Lipids

High energy storage Molecule- 9.3 cal/g vs 4.1 in carbohydrate and protein (due to all the H)