Bio 110

active transport

A kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient, which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion - or - movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Hence, this proce

adenosine diphosphate or ATP

(1) A nucleotide made up of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate units; having a molecular formula: C10H15N5O10P2
(2) The product of ATP de-phosphorylation via ATPases to release energy; and can be converted to ATP by phosphorylation (addition of phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate or ATP

ATP is a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds. It releases energy when it is broken down (hydrolyzed) into ADP (or Adenosine Diphosphate). The energy is used for many metabolic processes. Hen


the stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.


microtubules and fibers that radiate out from the centrioles


An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis or decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion, thereby releasing energy for use in another biochemical reaction.


Any chromosome not considered as a sex chromosome, or is not involved in sex determination. It occurs in pairs in somatic cells and singly in sex cells (gametes).


A organism capable of making nutritive organic molecules from inorganic sources via photosynthesis (involving light energy) or chemosynthesis (involving chemical energy).

c-3 plants

(1) A plant that utilizes the C3 carbon fixation pathway as the sole mechanism to convert CO2 into an organic compound (i.e. 3-phosphogylycerate).
(2) A plant in which the CO2 is first fixed into a compound containing three carbon atoms before entering th

c-4 plants

(2) A plant in which the CO2 is first fixed into a compound containing four carbon atoms before entering the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.

CAM planta

A plant that utilizes the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as an adaptation for arid conditions. CO2 entering the stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin Cycle during the day, when the stomata are close

calvin-benson cycle

A cyclical series of biochemical reactions that occur in the stroma of chloroplasts during photosynthesis. It includes the light-independent reactions such as carbon fixation, reduction reactions and ribulose 1,5-diphosphate (RuDP) whereby sugars and star

carbon fixation

The process by The process by which photosynthetic organisms such as plants turn inorganic carbon (usually carbon dioxide) into organic compounds (us. Carbohydrates).
which photosynthetic organisms such as plants turn inorganic carbon (usually carbon diox


pigment molecules- usually yellow, orange,and red- that interact with chlorophylls to absorb light energy needed in photosynthesis


Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients, energy is not requi


In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is that part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope. It is the jelly-like substance in a cell that contains the cytosol, organelles, and inclusions, but not including the nucleus. In fact, the cyt


The lattice or internal framework of a cell composed of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm, and has a role in controlling cell shape, maintaining intracellular organization, and in cell movement.


1. The passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentration gradient, or from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration.

cell wall

A membrane of the cell that forms external to the cell membrane whose main role is to give cells rigidity, strength and protection against mechanical stress. It is found in cells of plants, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae. Animals and most protists do

cellular respiration

A series of metabolic processes that take place within a cell in which biochemical energy is harvested from organic substance (e.g. glucose) and stored as energy carriers (ATP) for use in energy-requiring activities of the cell.
It consists of:
(1) Glycol


the diffusion of hydrogen ions (protons) across the biological membrane via the ATP synthase (a transport protein) due to a proton gradient that forms on the other side of the membrane. The proton gradient forms when the hydrogen ions accumulate as they a


The green pigment found in the chloroplasts of higher plants and in cells of photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g. photosynthetic bacteria), which is primarily involved in absorbing light energy for photosynthesis.


Chlorophyll-containing plastid found within the cells of plants and other photosynthetic eukaryotes.


The two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed from the duplication of the chromosome during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes during the late stages of cell division.


A complex of nucleic acids (e.g. DNA or RNA) and proteins (histones), which condenses to form a chromosome during cell division. In eukaryotic cells, it is found within the cell nucleus whereas in prokaryotic cells, it is found within the nucleoid. Its fu


A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in

citric acid cycle (KREBS)

1) A cycle of reactions catalyzed by enzymes in which pyruvate derived from nutrients and converted to Acetyl Coenzyme A is completely oxidized and broken down into carbon dioxide and water to produce high-energy phosphate compounds, which are the source

cleavage furrow

A groove formed from the cell membrane in a dividing cell as the contractile ring tightens.


The infoldings or inward projections of the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, which are studded with proteins and increase the surface area for chemical reactions to occur like cellular respiration.


a class of hemoprotein found in mitochondria that transport electron or protons(e.g. Hydrogen ions)(for instance during cell respiration or photosynthesis)
cytochromes are found in the mitochondrial inner membrane of eukaryotes, in the chloroplasts of pla


The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane following the division of the nucleus resulting into two cells, each having its own nucleus and cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.


Of or pertaining to a diploid, that is a cell or an organism with two sets of chromosomes.

electron transport chain

A group of compounds that pass electron from one to another via redox reactions coupled with the transfer of proton across a membrane to create a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
The major role of electron transport chain is to extrac


A process in which cell takes in materials from the outside by engulfing and fusing them with its plasma membrane.
Most of the extracellular materials that the cells absorb are large polar molecules (e.g. proteins and hormones) that cannot pass

endoplasmic reticulum

1) A membrane-bounded organelle that occurs as labyrinthine, interconnected flattened sacs or tubules that is connected to the nuclear membrane, runs through the cytoplasm, and may well extend into the cell membrane.


a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.
lack of order or predictability; gradual decline into di


Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with the structural formula CH3CH2OH, often abbreviated as C2H5OH or C2H6O


Any of the single-celled or multicellular organisms whose cell contains a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus.
Organisms such as animals, plants, fungi, and protists are examples of eukaryotes because their cells are organized into compartmentaliz


The process in which the cell releases materials to the outside by discharging them as membrane-bounded vesicles passing through the cell membrane.

facilitative transport

A form of passive transport in which materials are moved across the plasma membrane by a transport protein down their concentration gradient ; hence, it does not require energy.


a riboflavin-containing hydrogen Acceptor molecule in the krebs Cycle of plant respiration and a coenzyme of some oxidation-reduction enzymes.


oxidized fad

haploid cell

Of or pertaining to a condition in which there is only half of the complete set of chromosomes in somatic cells.


An organism that is unable to synthesize its own organic carbon-based compounds from inorganic sources, hence, feeds on organic matter produced by, or available in, other organisms.


An anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular process in which organic foods are converted into simpler compounds, and chemical energy (ATP) is produced.

fluid mosaic model

A model conceived by S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 to describe the structural features of biological membranes.
The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its hydrophobic integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that


(1) The outer layer usually made up of bound polysaccharides on the cell surface and superficial layer of unbound proteoglycans and glycoproteins
(2) Sugar coat surrounding the cell wall of bacterium, as bacterial capsule or slime layer in various bacteri


conjugated proteins containing one or more covalently linked carbohydrate residues. While technically describing conjugates in which the carbohydrate is less than 4 per cent by weight, the term is often used generically to include the mucoproteins and pro


1) The initial metabolic pathway of cellular respiration in which a series of reactions happening in the cytosol results in the conversion of a monosaccharide, often glucose, into pyruvic acid, and the concomitant production of a relatively small amount o

golgi apparatus

found in eukaryotes, packaging of molecules like proteins into vesicles for secretion, transport of lipids around the cell, and the creation of lysosomes


The collective term for the stack of thylakoids within the chloroplast of plant cells.
The granum contains the light harvesting system composed of chlorophyll and phospholipids.


(1) The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions
(2) The ability of the body or a cell to seek

homologous chromosomes

A pair of chromosomes having the same gene sequences, each derived from one parent.


a member of a homologous pair or series.


Having a greater degree of tone or tension.
Having a higher osmotic pressure in a fluid relative to another fluid.
Of or pertaining to a solution (e.g. extracelllular fluid) with higher solute concentration compared with another. (see: hypotonic, isotonic


refers to a solution with a comparatively lower concentration of solutes compared to another


a short resting period occurring between meiosis I and meiosis II


Pertaining to a solution that has the same tonicity as some other solution with which it is compared.

kinetic energy

energy due to the motion of an object

lactic acid

a byproduct of anaerobic glucose metabolism.

light dependent reaction

The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that require light energy that is captured by light-absorbing pigments (such as chlorophyll) to be converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.
The light-dependent reaction t

light independent reaction

The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light to proceed, and ultimately produce organic molecules from carbon dioxide.
The energy released from ATP (produced during the light reactions) drives this metabolic p


Organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
Their specific functions include digestion of macromolecules f


A form of cell division happening in sexually reproducing organisms by which two consecutive nuclear divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) occur without the chromosomal replication in between, leading to the production of four haploid gametes (sex cells),


A thin, helical, single-stranded filament of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, composed of actin subunits, and functions primarily in maintaining the structural integrity of a cell and cell movements.


A cytoplasmic tubule made up of polymers of alpha- and beta-tubulin dimers. It is the structural component of cytoskeleton, cilia, and eukaryotic flagella.


Spherical or rod-shaped organelles found within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, and are referred to as the "powerhouse of the cell since they act as the site for the production of high-energy compounds (e.g. ATP), which are vital energy source for seve


The process where a single cell divides resulting in generally two identical cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell.


Abbreviation for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme involved in redox reactions
In metabolic reactions, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide may be oxidized, NAD+, or reduced, NADH.


NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+. NADP+ differs from NAD+ in the presence of an additional phosphate group


A coenzyme that occurs in many living cells and functions as an electron acceptor like NAD but reacts with different metabolites


The reduced form of NAD

nuclear envelope

The double-layered membrane that envelopes the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, separating the contents of the nucleus from the (cytoplasm).


The round granular structure within the nucleus of a cell, and composed of protein and RNA.


The large, membrane-bounded organelle that contains the genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes.
In biology, the major functions of nucleus are to maintain the integrity of DNA and to con

organic catalyst

organic compound capable of initiating or speeding up a chemical reaction.


Diffusion of a solvent (usually water molecules) through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.

passive transport

The movement of a chemical substance across a cell membrane without expenditure of energy by the cell, as in diffusion.


A quantum unit of light energy. A quantum of electromagnetic radiation; an elementary particle that is its own antiparticle.A quantum of radiant energy with a visible [[wavelength.

potential energy

y) energy due to position, it is stored energy which can be used to do work. The mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position; stored energy.A form of energy that has potential for a reaction, though at present is in a stored form. Glycogen


The splitting or decomposition of a chemical compound by means of light energy or photons.
For example, the photolysis of water molecule in photosynthesis occurred under the influence of light. When photons are absorbed, it causes the hydrogen


pigment involved in photosynthesis in plants. Includes chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilins


The synthesis of complex organic material using carbon dioxide, water, inorganic salts, and light energy (from sunlight) captured by light-absorbing pigments, such as chlorophyll and other accessory pigments.
Photosynthesis consists of light reactions and

plant vacuole

A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal[1] and bacterial cells.[2] Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecule

plasma membrane

The cell's outer membrane made up of a two layers of phospholipids with embedded proteins. It separates the contents of the cell from its outside environment, and it regulates what enters and exits the cell.

pyruvic acid

organic liquid produced by the breakdown of carbohydrates and sugars during glycolysis,
If oxygen is available, pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl coenzyme A that enters the energy-producing pathway, the Krebs cycle. If oxygen is lacking, pyruvic acid is


A substance taking part in a chemical reaction.


1) A minute particle composed of protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA) that serves as the site of protein synthesis.
(2) A molecule consisting of two subunits that fit together and work as one to build proteins according to the genetic sequence held within t


A tiny pore in a plant leaf surrounded by a pair of guard cells that regulate its opening and closure, and serves as the site for gas exchange.

turgor pressure

The pressure exerted by water inside the cell against the cell wall.


A membrane-bound vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell whose function includes intracellular secretion, excretion, storage, and digestion.


A bubble-like membranous structure that stores and transports cellular products, and digests metabolic wastes within the cell; an intracellular membranous sac that is separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer.