Biology Concepts and Connections chapter 3

compounds that contain carbon

Organic compounds

organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen


The chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule.

carbon skeleton

compounds with the same formula but different structure


A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.

functional groups

in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom

hydroxyl group

an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked to a double bond to an oxygen atom

carbonyl group

A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.

carboxyl group

A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.

amino group

a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms

phosphate group

A chemical group consisting of a carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a different atom.

methyl group

four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)


building blocks of polymers


large compound formed from combinations of many monomers


A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule. Make polymers

dehydration reaction

a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds. breaks polymers


specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells


class of molecules ranging from the small sugar molecules dissolved in soft drinks to large polysaccharides like starch molecules in pasta and potatoes.


The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O.


A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.


one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen


A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.


polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers


a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers


complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods


a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers. , macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes


all have an amino group and a carboxyl group (makes it an acid) makes up part of protein

amino acids

the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid

peptide bond

A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.


when an enzyme changes shape and no longer functions due to high temperatures or wrong pH


The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.

primary structure

the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages

secondary structure

coiling of a polypeptide chain results in this kind of secondary structure

alpha helix

One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.

pleated sheet

refers to the overall 3D shape of a polypeptide

teriary structure

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

quaternary structure

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait


deoxyrobonucleic acid-- on of the two types of polymers known as nucleic acids, (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix


ribonucleic acid--, A single-stranded nucleic acid that passes along genetic messages


two strands of nucleotides wound around each other; structure of DNA

double helix

nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. consist or mainly carbon and hydrogen atoms.




lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol; protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in the body, organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids


having less than the maximum number of hydrogens


fats with the maximum number of hydrogens.


two fats and a phosphate group attached to glycerol; fat tail = hydrorphobic. phosphate group & its attachments = hydrophilic


lipids whose carbon skeleton contains four fused rings, large lipid molecules; cholesterol found in all animal membranes - use to maintain membrane, growth and division; regulation of sexual funcion(setrogens/testoserone); tissue metabolism/mineral balanc


a common component in animal cell membranes and animal cells also use it as a starting material for making other steroids including sex hormones.


synthetic variants of the male hormone testosterone.

Anabolic steroids

testosterone causes a general buildup of muscle and bone mass in males during puberty and maintains masculine traits throughout life.

causes of anabolic steroids