the fundamental science on which everything we study in biology is based.
basic unit of matter
Where are neutrons located?
Where are protons located?
Where are electrons located?
The electron cloud
What is the charge of a Neutron?
What is the charge of a proton?
What is the charge of electrons
What subatomic particles have mass?
Protons and Neutrons
What subatomic particle has no significant mass?
a pure substance that consists of only one type of atom
About how many elements are there?
About how many elements are only found in living things?
the number of protons in the nucleus
sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
weighted average of the masses of an elements isotopes
Atoms of the same element that differ in their number of neutrons
atoms that have a charge
a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions
simplest unit of a compound
What are the two types of Chemical Bonding?
Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
formed when one or more electrons are shared between two atoms
is an uneven distribution of charge
An example of a Polar Molecule.
How is water unique?
Expands when Freezes
What are the two attractions between molecules?
Cohesion and Adhesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
attraction between molecules of different substances
2 or more elements or compounds physically mixed together but not chemically combined
What are the two types of Mixtures?
Solution and a Suspension
What is another name for a Solution?
What is another name for a Suspension?
What are the two parts of a Solution?
Solute and Solvent
What is a Solute?
The substance that is dissolved.
What is a Solvent?
The substance in which the solute is dissolved.
The components are evenly distributed throughout
The mixtures of non dissolved materials; unevenly distributed
The measurement system that indicates the concentration of H+ ions in solution.
is anything that produces hydrogen ions
anything that produces hydroxide in a solution
When you go down the pH scale it,
When you go up the pH scale it,
What is the pH in the human body?
What is the pH in the human body due to?
keep the pH between 6.5 and 7.5 or from having sharp changes
Chemistry that deals with compounds that involve Carbon.
Atoms are most stable when what is filled?
How many valence electrons does carbon have?
What is the most versatile element on Earth?
Giant molecules made up of smaller molecules; make up living cells
What are macromolecules also known as?
process by which these Macromolecules are formed.
What are Monomers?
Smaller molecules that are joined together to form Polymers
4 main groups of Polymers in Living things
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Proteins
What is the primary function of Carbohydrates?
Main source of energy for living things
What is the secondary function of Carbohydrates?
some structural purposes
What are the 3 types of Carbohydrates?
Starches, Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides
complex carbohydrates used to store sugars
single sugar molecules (monomer)
macromolecules forms from the combination of many monosaccharides
What are the 3 types of lipids?
Saturated, Unsaturated and Polyunsaturated
Single covalent bonds in the Carbon Chain
At least one Double bond in the fatty acid
More than one Double Bound
What is the function of Lipids?
Used to store energy, as part of biological membranes and waterproof covering
What are Nucleic Acids made of?
Monomers known as Nucleotides
What are the 3 parts of Nucleic Acids?
5 carbon ring, Nitrogenous base, Phosphate group
What is the function of Nucleic Acids?
Store and Transmit genetic information
What are Proteins made of?
What are the 3 parts of an amino acid?
Amino group, Carboxyl group, R-Group
What is the function of proteins?
Each protein has a specific role in the cell
What are the 4 levels of organization of how to build a protein?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary
Primary Level of Organization
The order of Amino Acids
Secondary Level of Organization
Coiling of amino acids with in a chain
Tertiary Level of Organization
The chain itself is folded
Quaternary Level of Organization
Each chain has a specific arrangement in space and in relation to other Polypeptide Chains
Process by which one substance is changed into another
What are the Substances Involved in a Chemical reaction?
Reactants and Products
What is a reactant?
are the chemicals that enter a reaction (left side of equation)
What is a Product?
the resulting new substances formed (right side of equation)
What is the shorthand representation of a reaction?
A substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy.
How much do catalysts speed up chemical reactions?
Up to 10 million times
Regulating chemical pathways, cellular materials, Releasing energy, Transferring information