Biology Chapter One Neblett


the fundamental science on which everything we study in biology is based.


basic unit of matter

Where are neutrons located?


Where are protons located?


Where are electrons located?

The electron cloud

What is the charge of a Neutron?


What is the charge of a proton?


What is the charge of electrons


What subatomic particles have mass?

Protons and Neutrons

What subatomic particle has no significant mass?



a pure substance that consists of only one type of atom

About how many elements are there?


About how many elements are only found in living things?


Atomic Number

the number of protons in the nucleus

Mass Number

sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus

Atomic Mass

weighted average of the masses of an elements isotopes


Atoms of the same element that differ in their number of neutrons


atoms that have a charge

Chemical Compounds

a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions


simplest unit of a compound

What are the two types of Chemical Bonding?

Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds

Ionic Bonds

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

Covalent Bonds

formed when one or more electrons are shared between two atoms

Polar Molecule

is an uneven distribution of charge

An example of a Polar Molecule.


How is water unique?

Expands when Freezes

What are the two attractions between molecules?

Cohesion and Adhesion


attraction between molecules of the same substance


attraction between molecules of different substances


2 or more elements or compounds physically mixed together but not chemically combined

What are the two types of Mixtures?

Solution and a Suspension

What is another name for a Solution?

Homogeneous Mixture

What is another name for a Suspension?

Heterogeneous mixture

What are the two parts of a Solution?

Solute and Solvent

What is a Solute?

The substance that is dissolved.

What is a Solvent?

The substance in which the solute is dissolved.


The components are evenly distributed throughout


The mixtures of non dissolved materials; unevenly distributed

pH scale

The measurement system that indicates the concentration of H+ ions in solution.

Above 7

Basic (base)



Below 7



is anything that produces hydrogen ions


anything that produces hydroxide in a solution

When you go down the pH scale it,


When you go up the pH scale it,


What is the pH in the human body?


What is the pH in the human body due to?



keep the pH between 6.5 and 7.5 or from having sharp changes

Organic Chemistry

Chemistry that deals with compounds that involve Carbon.

Atoms are most stable when what is filled?

Valence Shells

How many valence electrons does carbon have?


What is the most versatile element on Earth?



Giant molecules made up of smaller molecules; make up living cells

What are macromolecules also known as?



process by which these Macromolecules are formed.

What are Monomers?

Smaller molecules that are joined together to form Polymers

4 main groups of Polymers in Living things

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Proteins

What is the primary function of Carbohydrates?

Main source of energy for living things

What is the secondary function of Carbohydrates?

some structural purposes

What are the 3 types of Carbohydrates?

Starches, Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides


complex carbohydrates used to store sugars


single sugar molecules (monomer)


macromolecules forms from the combination of many monosaccharides

What are the 3 types of lipids?

Saturated, Unsaturated and Polyunsaturated

Saturated Lipids

Single covalent bonds in the Carbon Chain


At least one Double bond in the fatty acid


More than one Double Bound

What is the function of Lipids?

Used to store energy, as part of biological membranes and waterproof covering

What are Nucleic Acids made of?

Monomers known as Nucleotides

What are the 3 parts of Nucleic Acids?

5 carbon ring, Nitrogenous base, Phosphate group

What is the function of Nucleic Acids?

Store and Transmit genetic information

What are Proteins made of?

Amino Acids

What are the 3 parts of an amino acid?

Amino group, Carboxyl group, R-Group

What is the function of proteins?

Each protein has a specific role in the cell

What are the 4 levels of organization of how to build a protein?

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary

Primary Level of Organization

The order of Amino Acids

Secondary Level of Organization

Coiling of amino acids with in a chain

Tertiary Level of Organization

The chain itself is folded

Quaternary Level of Organization

Each chain has a specific arrangement in space and in relation to other Polypeptide Chains

Chemical Reaction

Process by which one substance is changed into another

What are the Substances Involved in a Chemical reaction?

Reactants and Products

What is a reactant?

are the chemicals that enter a reaction (left side of equation)

What is a Product?

the resulting new substances formed (right side of equation)

What is the shorthand representation of a reaction?

Chemical equation


A substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy.


biological catalyst

How much do catalysts speed up chemical reactions?

Up to 10 million times

Enzyme Functions

Regulating chemical pathways, cellular materials, Releasing energy, Transferring information