Biology 1406 Exam 2

Why is it more beneficial for cells to be smaller rather than larger ?

able to diffuse through materials easily, easier to replicate and replace when damaged.


enclosed structures in Eukaryotic cells.

Prokayotic Cells

DNA is not enclosed ; inside Nucleoid

Bacteria and Archaea.

Prokaryotic Cells

Protists, fungi animals and plants.

Eukaryotic Cells.

Eukaryotic Cells

DNA is in organelle called the Nucleus.


Area inside prokayotic cells that houses DNA.

What are the characteristics of a Prokayotic Cell ?

Fimbriae, Nucleoid, Ribsosomes,Plasma Membrane, Cell Wall, Capsule, Flagella.


attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes.


complexes that synthesis proteins; uses information from DNA to make proteins

Plasma membrane

encloses the cytoplasm

Cell Wall

rigid structure outside the plasma membrane;maintains cell's shape; made of cellulose, polysaccharides, and protein.


Jellylike outer coating of many prokaryotes


locomotion organelles of some bacteria


the interior of either type of cell.

Which of the two cell types are larger in size ?

Eukaryotic Cells

The smallest cells known are a bacteria called ?


function of the plasma membrane

a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients and wastes to service the entire cell.

as a cell increases in size..

its surface area grows less than its volume.


projections that increase the cell's surface area and not volume.


embedded in mitochondria; function in cellular respiration

organelles of an animal cell.

Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleus, Plasma membrane, Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, Lysosome, Mitochondrion, Peroxisome, Cytoskeleton, Centrosome, & Flagellum.


motility structure present in some animal cells.


contains a pair of centrioles


includes (mircofilaments, intermediate filaments, mircotubles) reienforces cell's shape; functions in cell movement.


where ATP cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated; contains some DNA


digestive organelle where macro-molecules are hydolyzed


break down of a chemical reaction with water.

Golgi apparatus

acts in synthesis modification,sorting, and secretion of cell products.


specializes in metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product then converts it to water.

What organelles are in plant cells that are not included in animal cells ?

Cell Wall, Vacuole, Chloroplast, & Plasmodesmata.


channels thorough cell walls that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.


aides photosynthesis; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules.


responsible for storage; breakdown of waste products and hydrolysis of macromolecules


houses most the cells DNA; directs protein synthesis by synthesizing messenger RNA

Nuclear Envelope

double membrane; encloses the nucleus , separating its contents from the cytoplasm.

pore complex

regulates the entry and exit of proteins and RNA's


protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.

nuclear matrix

framework of protein fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior


the complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes

The typical human has how many chromosomes in it's nucleus ?


RNA( Ribosomal RNA)

synthesized from instructions in the DNA

Cells that have high rates of proteins synthesis have...

particularly large numbers of ribosomes.

free ribosomes

suspended in the cytosol

bound ribosomes

attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticiculum or nuclear envelope.

Ribosomes can alternate between two roles


what are the organelles of the endomembrane system?

nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus,lysosomes,vesicles, vacuoles,and plasma membrane



Smooth ER

outer surface lacks ribosomes; synthesis of lipids,metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons and storage of calcium ions.

Rough ER

studded with ribosomes; makes membrane phospholipids; assemble phospolipids from precursors in the cytosol.


adding hydroxyl groups to drug molecules making them more soluble and easier to flush from the body.

Cisternal maturation

golgi cisternae themselves mature; moving from cis to trans while carrying some proteins


lysosome digesting food


lysosome braking down damaged organelles

Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

regulates a cells behavior through communication through integrins; glycoproteins & carboyhydrate molecules


transmits signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton; to integrate changes inside and outside the cell.

What proteins interact with the ECM ?

integrins and fibronectin

tight junctions

the plasma membranes of cells, very tightly pressed against each other ; prevents leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells


fastening cells together into strong sheets; attach muscle cells to each other in muscle

Gap junctions

provides cytoplasmic channels from on cell to an adjacent cell


hydrophillic and hydrophobic region

what molecules can move through the selective permeability of the membrane ?

Non polar; hydrophillic molecules; with no charge.


reduces membrane fluidity at moderate temperatures, by reducing phosoholipids movement

integral proteins

penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer

peripheral proteins

loosely bound to the surface of the membrane

what are the six functions of proteins ?

Transport, Enzymatic Activity, Signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, attachment to cytoskelton and extracellular matrix

how does polar molecules cross the membrane ?

transport proteins


the movement of particles of any substance so they spread out into available space.


water molecules moves from an area of higher to lower free water concentration

passive transport

substances diffuse down their concentration gradients

active transport

substances move across membrane against their concentration