Chapter 29 Bacteria and Archaea

Domain

A taxonomic category consisting of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Having similarities in basic cellular biochemistry

Prokaryote

A unicellular organism in the domain "Bacteria" or "Archaea" lacking a nucleus with few organelles

Bacteria

A unicellular prokaryote containing a peptidoglycan cell wall in the bacteria domain

Archaea

A unicellular prokaryote containing a phospholipid cell wall in the archaean domain

Microbe / Microbiology

A Microscopic organism / The study of microscopic organisms

Phyla

Taxonomic category of an organism

Extremophile

And organism loving an extreme environments: high salt or pressure, and high or low temperatures

Thermophile

A type of extremophile but only in extreme weather conditions

Pathogenic

A bacteria causing disease within an organism

Germ Theory Disease

Microscopic organisms such as bacteria and viruses causing diseases

Antibiotics

A molecule that kills a bacteria from growing within an organism

Virulence

The ability to cause disease

Bio remediation

The use of Bacteria or Archaea to clean up sites polluted with organic solvents

Enrichment culture

How biologist study the environment of the specific domain.

Metagenomics

Allows biologists to identify and characterize organisms' genes

List three phyla that bacteria are found in

Bacteroidetes, firmicutes, and actenobacteria

Monophyletic group

Clade or lineage of an ancestral population

Gram stain positive

Plasma membrane surrounded by peptidoglycan and is purple

Gram stain negative

Plasma membrane surrounded by peptidoglycan then an outer layer of a phospholipid bilayer and is pink

Peptidoglycan

A polysaccharide cell wall in bacteria

Phototroph

Gets energy through photosynthesis

Chemoorganotroph

Gets energy by oxidizing organic molecules such as algae, plants and Bacteria

Chemolithotroph

Gets energy by oxidizing inorganic molecules

Autotroph

Self synthesized by simple molecules such as Co2

Heterotroph

From molecules produced by other organisms

Photosynthesis

Converting light energy into chemical energy

Cellular respiration

The production of ATP through an electron transport chain of high energy to low energy of oxidization or chemical energy

Oxygen revolution

The rise of oxygen capability on planet earth

Cyanobacteria

Photosynthetic bacteria that were first to perform oxygenic photosynthesis

Aerobic

Metabolic process that uses oxygen as an electron acceptor

Anaerobic

Metabolic process that uses oxygen as an electron acceptor other than oxygen

Nitrogen Fixation

Converting of molecular nitrogen to ammonia

What is a prokaryote?

A unicellular Bacteria or Archaea organism containing a peptidoglycan cell membrane & lacking a nucleus

What major biological impacts of bacteria and Archaea?

They are the oldest out of all organisms domains, fossil records of over billions of years ago

How do we study Bacteria and Archaea?

Metagenomics: the inventory of the organisms' genes

How are prokaryote diverse?

They're known for the types of compounds they fan use as food allowing them to strive in so many environments

How can you distinguish lineages of prokaryote?

Bacterial are rod shaped, morphological, or phylogenetic. Archaea virtually live in every known habitat

How do molecules that function as an electron donors and those that function as electron acceptors differ?

Electron donors have high potential energy and electron acceptors of a low potential energy

What do some photosynthetic bacteria use as a source of electrons instead of water?

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S (

What is distinctive about the chlorophyll found in different photosynthetic bacteria?

Their absorbance spectra

What organisms called that use inorganic as electron donors in cellular respiration?

Lithotrophs

Certain aerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen cab convert nitrogen gas to ammonia. True or False?

False

Unlike cell walls that contain cellulose, bacterial cell walls are composed of

Peptidoglycan

What has metagenomic analysis allowed researchers to do for the first time?

Study organisms that cannot grow in a lab

Why is energy source used as a synonym for "electron donor?

Electron donors provide the potential energy to produce ATP

Why do biologists agree that there is a tremendous ecological diversity of bacteria and Archaea?

Because of the wide array they have as characteristics such as bacteria is capable of donating and accepting electrons to produce ATP, their ability to photosynthesize, and containing of substrates

How do disease causing bacteria obtain energy?

Bacteria gets reduced organic compound energy from their hosts

Claim why oxygen revolution is a stated

At first earth only produced CO2, allowing organisms to obtain energy through the compound. Then the bacteria turned that energy into oxygen as waste, then organisms used oxygen as an energy source and so on.

Give an example of a hypothesis

A statement including the possibility of an "if, then" to occur

Was the common ancestor of all species living today prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Eukaryotic because the domain Eukarya are all unicellular same as the other domains, also all three domains contain organelles and the eukaryotes were the first to contain them

List 3 out of the seven lineages that can cause human illnesses

Firmicutes - Affects wounds
Spirochaetes - skin and nerves
Actinobacteria -respiratory tract
Chlamydia let - urogenital
(e)Proteobacteria - stomach
(B)Proteobacteria - urogenital
(y)Proteobacteria - all of the above