Westmont Old Testament Nelson Exam #1


freshwater god; father of other gods, doesn't like the other gods being a nuisance so he decides to destroy
them all, but before he can, Ea kills him


saltwater; mother of other gods, angry that Apsu is killed, plots revenge, creates Kingu to help her take
revenge on other gods. Faces Marduk in battle, loses. (name like Tehom: the deep)


created from the heart of Apsu, only god strong enough to defeat Tiamat, elected by other Gods to fight tiamat demands, he then demands that in return for her
defeat he be made the head of the gods. Given winds, bow, mace, and net to fight Tiamat. Babylon


monster created by Tiamat to help plot revenge, killed and from his blood humans are created to serve the


wise man, tells the shepherd to give Enkidu a harlot and he wouldn't be wild anymore


Savage---> tame, used to run with the animals, hairy, helped animals escape so a man brought him a harlot
to seduce him and after they cohabitate for 7 days he can no longer run with the animals, they don't recognize him, because "he now had wisdom, broad


the one who also has the ark (the mirror to Noah)


the offspring of the sons of God and the daughters of men


a godly man, called to build an ark and save himself, his family, and every animal from the flood of God's punishment for the earth


Noah's son, his sons are blessed by Noah


Noah's son; his son Canaan is cursed because Ham looked on Noah while he was drunk and naked


Noah's son

H. Gunkel 1862-1932

o Argued stories in Genesis are etiological (explanatory) legends

� Tower of Babel:

Probably a Ziggurate= "temple tower" artificial mountain. Many peoples thought their gods lived on mountains. In the flatlands of the desert there were no mountains, so their created temple mountains, it becomes a meeting point between gods and humans. th

W.F. Albright

Argued stories in Genesis are etiological (explanatory) legends. Because of evidence in archaeology, he was much more positive of OT historicity.
� Gen. 16:1-4 wife's maid is given to husband�later this custom would be considered adultery, so why would pe


? Mentioned often in 2nd Mil.
? Root PR�"dusty" could be a pejorative term used by others to designate Hebrews (in Bible, referred as "Hebrew" by other groups they come across"
? Social class�not an ethnic group, mercenaries, nomadic bands, pressed into s


king of Salem, worshipper and priest of Yahweh


Abraham's nephew, he and his family (except for his wife who turns to salt) is spared from the destruction of
Sodom and Gommorah


Son of Issac, ruddy/red, hunter, brother to Jacob, sells his birthright to Jacob


Father in law to Jacob, father of Rachel and Leah, Jacob's uncle

Noahic cavanant

Law�don't eat blood/don't murder
Grace�no destruction of the world by flood/blessing/animals given for food

Abraham covenant

Law�circumcision Gen. 17:10, 14
Grace�promise: land, offspring, blessing
Sign: circumcision a sign between God and Abe.

Moses covenant

Law�tablets of stone
Sign: Sabbath

Jesus covenant

Law�love/keep my commands
Grace�forgiveness through death of Christ
Sign: love/baptism/communion

3 main patriarchs + matriarchs

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
Sarah, Rebekah,Leah, Rachel


(comes up in Gilgamesh and flood story) is the ruler of the realm of waters around world and below it, patron god of exorcists, patron of all arts and crafts. Kills Apsu who planned to kill younger Gods due to their "noise." Tiamat seeks revenge.

Enkidu longer story

Enkidu assists Gilgamesh in his fight against Humbaba, the guardian monster of the Cedar Forest. Contrary to Enkidu's conscience, he cooperates in killing the defeated Humbaba. Afterwards, he again assists his companion Gilgamesh in slaying the Bull of He


Marduk's temple. likely a ziggurat

hebrews were a subset of


El Shaddai

? El Shaddai - God of the mountain/God
� God Almighty Gen 17:1
o (Shaddai � Shadu: word for mountain)

El Bethel

El Bethel - God of Bethel Gen 35:7
� God of Fathers Gen 24:12 Abraham, Isaac, Jacob

El Alam

El Alam - Eternal God, God of old, God of Antiquity

patriarchal religion: worship, places of worship, and official

worship: Shaddai, Bethel, Alam.
promises: people more than places, protection, offspring, land, prosperity.
places of worship: many legitimate shrines.
official: no established priesthood

Moses' midianite wife


name of servant who bore Abraham's child when sarah was thought to be permanently barren?


Name of Abraham's son had through hagar?


who was rachel's father?


Joseph's younger brother who's sack he planted in the goblet



known for the set of laws called hammurabi's code, one of the first written codes of law in recorded history

who was melechizedk

King of salem, not from tribe of levi

who was daighter in law who seduced her father?


Lot bore two nations through his two daughters.

Moab, ben-ammi (moabites and ammonites)

If the exodus took place in the later suggested time period, wo was thought to be the pharoah?

Ramses II

Who was the father of Abraham?

Terah, Shem way back

What was the river thought to run through the garden of Eden?


What is not true of both the flood story of the bible and the flood story of the mythological gilgamesh epic?

There was an ark (true), everyone on the ark was saved (true), both arks sent out a dove (true), both arks landed on Mt. Ararat (FALSE).

1st cultural achievement

Cain -> first city
Jabal -> herdsmen
Jubal -> musician
Tubal-Cain -> metal workers

Cain's son

Enoch. Cain built a city, named it Enoch after his son.

Adam's other son

Seth, who then had Enosh, then men began to call on the name of the lord.

One of Cain's offspring that again committed murder.



Revelation: deed/word/miracle, revealing to particular people at a particular time. not finding God, but God revealing himself to us.
Inspiration: divine/human, plenary (all scripture is inspired, not just parts), verbal (words are inspired, not just idea

Languages of the bible

Hebrew and Aramaic

Materials used for the text of the bible

Scrolls, papyrus, ostracon

ancient text versions

Greek - LXX (Septuagint)
Aramaic - Targums
Syriac - Peshitta
Latin - Vulgate

two textual criticisms

the briefer reading is to be preferred.
the more difficult reading is to be preferred.

contextual variants

i.e. The king sat on the (the) large throne.
i.e. The king sat on the [large] throne.
Homoioarchton - similar beginnings
Homoioteleuton - similar ending
i.e. The man bought [two books and] two bookmarks.
i.e. I went to the temple [


foreign chiefs (in Greek). 18th cent. invasion, 16th cent. rule, 15th cent. dynasty, capital Avaris.

New Kindom

Exodus 18th dynasty, capital thebes.


Won independence and expelled Hyksos in 15th cent.

18th dynasty

13th cent. Rameses I, moved capital - Avaris
Seti/sethos -> rameses II -> Merneptah ->

Early and late Exodus dates

early: 15th cent. according to listed patriarchs in Exodus.
late: 13th cent. scripture, archeloical, destruction of Israel (important cities), mention of Shasu/Apiru (Hebrew), Merneptal/Israelite mentions Israel as a people, not a country.

Egyptian records of Exodus

There were none.


o Place where Jacob had a dream about angels ascending and descending a ladder?