Exam 3 Ch 6,8,9

Cartilage

no blood vessels or nerves

types of cartilage

hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

axil skeleton

the skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum (provides the framework for the trunk and head)

appendicular skeleton

Bones of the limbs and limb girdles that are attached to the axial skeleton

long bone

longer than they are wide

types of long bone

humerus, radial, ulna, phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula

short bone

cube shaped

short bones

wrist and ankle

flat bone

sternum, skull, scapula, clavical

irregular bone

complex shaped

irregular bones

ilium, ischium, pubis

compact bone

dense outer layer

spongy bone

honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow

Diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

Epidhysis

expanded ends of a long bone

epiphyseal plate

growth plate that separates diaphysis from epiphysis

perioseum

Covering around the outside of bones; protective membrane

inner layer of periosum

contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts

endosteum

delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone

osteocytes

mature bone cells

lacunae

a small cavity (often houses cartilage or bone cells)

canaliculi

Hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal

osteon

structural unit of compact bone

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

osteoclasts

large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix

osteoid

unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen

hydroxyapatite

mineral salts made mostly of calcium phosphate

osteogenesis

bone tissue formation; boney skeletal in embryos, remodeling and repair

growth zone

cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

transformation zone

older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, and the matrix begins to deteriorate

osteogenic zone

new bone formation occurs

growth hormone

important during infantry and adulthood

entire skeleton is completely replaced

every 10 years

wolf's law of bone

a bone grows or remodels in response to the demand placed upon it

Osteoporosis

A condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily.

rickets

Vitamin D deficiency and causes deformities

articulations

sites where two or more bones meet

fibrous joins

has no joint cavity; most are immovable

synarthroses

immovable joints

Amphiarthrosis

allow only slight movement

Diarthrosis

freely movable joints; also known as synovial joints

cartilaginous joints

allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage

synovial joints

Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.

knee joint

largest and most complex; allows fixation, extension, and rotation

Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint

Ball-and-socket joint
Head of humerus with glenoid cavity of scapula
Most freely moving joint in body
Stability sacrificed

Hip (Coxal) Joint

Ball-and-socket joint; head of the femur articulates with acetabulum; good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket; rim of fibrocartilage - acetabular labrum enhances depth of socket so hip dislocations rare

sprains

Injuries caused by sudden twisting or wrenching of a joint with stretching or tearing of ligaments

dislocations

When a bone pops out of its normal position in a joint.

subluxation

partial dislocation

Bursitis

fluid filled sac located where fixation occurs

tendonitis

inflammation of tendon sheaths

arthritis

painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.

osteoporosis

A condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily. "wear and Tear

rheumatoid arthritis

a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked

muscle functions

producing movement, maintaining posture, stabilizing joints, generating heat

muscle tissue

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

Sarcolemma

muscle cell membrane

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of a muscle cell

muscle fibers

skeletal and smooth muscle cells

Endomysium

Connective tissue surrounding a muscle fiber

Perimysium

Connective tissue surrounding a fascicle(muscle fibers)

Epimysium

dense regular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle

contracting fibers

require continuous delivery of oxygen and nutrients via arteries

wastes are removed by

veins

insertion

bone that moves when muscles contract

origin

immovable bone

Myofibrils

Densely packed, rodlike elements
~80% of cell volume

sarcomeres

a structural unit of a myofibril in striated muscle; made of myofilaments

tail

two rod-like interwoven polypeptide chains

head

two globular polypeptide chains called cross bridges

sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which stores, releases, and retrieves Ca++

sliding filament model

states that the thick and thin filaments slide past each other so that their degree of overlap increases.

excitation-contraction coupling

events that link the action potentials on the sarcolemma to activation of the myofilaments, thereby preparing them to contract