joints and synovial joint movements

fibrous joints

dense fibrous connective tissue with strong collagen fibers firmly w/o synovial cavity

cartilaginous joints

have either hyaline or fibrocartilage connecting the bones with no synovial cavity

Synovial cavity

space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane

synarthroses

immovable joints

amphiarthroses

slightly movable joints

diarthroses

freely movable joints

The three types of fibrous joints

sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

sutures

occur only between bones of the skull

syndesmoses

Permits slight movement
Interosseous membrane
Between the tibia and fibula in the leg

gomphoses

Immovable joint
Joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket
Articulations of the teeth with the sockets of the maxillae and mandible

The Two types of cartilaginous joints are?

synchondroses (growth plates) and symphyses (pubic)

synovial cavity

small space between the two articulating bones

articular cartilage

Hyaline cartilage attached to articular bone surfaces

fibrous membrane

outer dense fibrous connective tissue layer of the articular capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the bone; also forms ligaments when fibrous bundles are parallel

synovial membrane

inner layer of the articular capsule; composed of areolar connective tissue containing elastic fibers and adipocytes

synchondroses

Connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage
Epiphyseal (growth) plate

symphyses

Slightly movable joint
Ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones

articular capsule

Sleeve-like covering over the synovial cavity
the articular composed of two layers; outer fibrous capsule and inner synovial membrane

synovial fluid

Secretion of synovial membranes that lubricates joints and nourishes articular cartilage
removing carbon dioxide and metabolic waste from cartilage

accessory ligaments and articular discs

Collateral ligaments of the knee joint
Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint

Menisci

pads of fibrocartilage lie between the articular surfaces of the bones, allow bones of different shapes to fit together more tightly

Nerve and blood supply (synovial joints)

-convey information about pain to the spinal cord and brain
-respond to degree of movement/stretch at a joint
-arterial branches merge around joint before penetrating the articular capsule

bursae

sac-like structures filled with synovial fluid
located between tendons, ligaments and bones
cushion movement of one body part over another

tendon sheaths

wrap around tendons, reduce friction at joints
each finger and toe have 2 sets

Classified movement of synovial joints

planar
hinge
pivot
condyloid
saddle
ball-and-socket

planar joints

Primarily permit back-and-forth and side-to-side movements
Intercarpal joints (feet)

hinge joints

Produce an opening and closing motion like that of a hinged door
Permit only flexion and extension
Knee and elbow

pivot joints

Surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone
Joints that enable the palms to turn anteriorly and posteriorly

condyloid joint

the projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone (wrist)

Saddle joint

Articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions; the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another
thumb

ball and socket joint

ball like surface of one bone fitting into a cupcake depression of another bone
shoulders and hips

example of a suture

coronal suture

example of sydesmosis joint

distal tibiofibular joint

example of interosseous membrane

between the tibia and fibula

example of synchondrosis joint

epiphyseal plate

example of symphysis joint

pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs

example of planar joint

inter carpal, intetarsal, sternocostal (between sternum and the second-seventh pair of ribs) and intervertebral joints

example of hinge

knee, elbow, ankle, and interphalangeal joints

example of pivot

atlanto-axial joint and radioulnar joint

example of condyloid joint

radoiocarpal and metacarpophalangeal

example of a saddle

carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, and trapezium

example of ball and socket joint

shoulder and hip

the four types of movements at synovial joint

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