Midterm (Fitness Assessment and Exercise Leadership)


Skin Folds

> Use of calipers to estimate body density (Db)
> Based on principle that amount of subcutaneous fat is proportional to total amount of body fat
> Most useful (and appropriate) for individuals who are not extremely obese

Skinfold Procedures

> All measurements on right side of body
> Maintain the pinch while reading caliper
> Wait 1-2 seconds before reading caliper, no more
> Need duplicate measurements between 1-2mm
> Measure sites in rotational order

Caliper Placement

1cm from thumb and finger
Perpendicular to skinfold
Halfway between fold crest and fold base

Skinfold Sites

> Abdominal
> Triceps
> Pectoral
> Midaxillary
> Subscapular
> Suprailiac
> Thigh

Siri Equation

% Body Fat = 495/Db - 450


The functional capacity of the joints to move through a full range of motion (ROM).

Functional ROM

Ability to move a joint without incurring pain or a limit to performance

Flexibility is


Flexibility can be effected by

> Age
> Gender
> Previous injuries to the joint
> Specific diseases

Flexibility is dependent on

> Distensibility of joint capsule
> Adequate warm-up
> Muscle viscosity
> Compliance of ligaments & tendons

Slow Static Flexibility

> Relaxed position
> Stretch no farther than ROM with mild discomfort
> Hold stretches for 15-30 sec.
> Repeat 2-4+ times per limb
> Should be performed 2-5 times per week

Dynamic/Ballistic Stretching

> 5-10 repetitions per movement
> Progressively increase ROM on each rep
> Increase speed of motion on subsequent sets
> Contract muscles lightly as you move through ROM
> Should be performed after warm-up, prior to workout


> Client contracts target muscle group isometrically, followed by a slow, passive stretching of target muscle group
> Isometric contraction = 5-6s.
> Stretch to new point of limitation (not extreme)
> Repeat
> Most PNF stretches cannot be effectively perf

Concentric Action

The muscle shortens because the contractile force is greater than the resistive force

Eccentric Action

The muscle lengthens because the contractile force is less than the resistive force

Isometric Action

The muscle length does not change because the contractile force is equal to the resistive force

Factors in Human Strength

> Neural control
> # of motor units involved
> Muscle cross-sectional area
> Arrangement of muscle fibers
> Muscle length
> Joint angle
> Muscle contraction velocity
> Joint angular velocity (muscle actions)
> Strength-to-mass ratio
> Body size (absolute

Muscular Strength

The maximal force that can be generated by a specific muscle or muscle group

Muscular Endurance

The ability of a muscle group to execute repeated contractions over a period of time sufficient to cause muscular fatigue, or to maintain a specific percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction for a prolonged period of time


Designed to prepare the body for movement, it does not solve positional problems

Three Primary Mobility Modalities

> Soft tissue work
> Stretching
> Joint mobilization

Soft Tissue Work

> Self-myofascial release
> Before of after workout session


> Static & dynamic stretching
> PNF stretching

Joint Mobilization

> Often involves stretch bands to provide distraction at a given joint
> Goal is to increase extensibility of a joint capsule by breaking up adhesions and/or stretching the capsule itself

Body Composition

The body's relative amounts of fat mass and fat-free mass


> Total body weight above a recommended range for good health
> BMI = 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2


> Severely overweight and overfat; characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat
> BMI = 30.0 kg/m2 and above

Chronic diseases associated with obesity

> Hypertension
> Hyperlipidemia
> Some cancers


Measurement of the human body

Body Composition Measurement Techniques

> Height & Weight tables
> Circumferences
> Body Mass Index (BMI)
> Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR)
> Skinfolds
> Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
> Hydrostatic Weighing (UWW)
> Air Displacement (Bod Pod)

Body Mass Index

> Weight (kg) relative to height (m�)
> BMI = weight (kg) / height (m�)

Waist-to-Hip Ratio

> Ratio of circumference of waist to circumference of the hip
> Represents distribution of body weight

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

The ability to perform large muscle, dynamic, moderate to high intensity exercise for prolonged periods.

Physical Activity

Any bodily movement or activity, regardless of intensity, that is not designed for the purpose of enhancing physical fitness


Structured planned activities for the purpose of enhancing overall physical fitness

Heart Rate

Number of times the heart contracts in 1 minute


Resting heart rate under 60 BPM in adults


Resting heart rate over 100 BPM in adults

Palpation Sites

> Brachial artery
> Carotid artery
> Radial artery
> Temporal artery

Blood Pressure

The force of blood against the walls of the arteries and veins created by the heart, as it pumps blood to every part of the body

Systolic Pressure

> Amount of pressure in your arteries during contraction of your heart muscle
> Top number

Diastolic Pressure

> Measures the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart rests between beats
> Bottom number


SBP >140
DBP >90

Normal Blood Pressure

SBP <120
DBP <80


Act as prime movers


Act in direct opposition to prime movers


Assist prime movers during functional movement patterns


Support or stabilize the body while the prime movers & synergists perform the movement patterns

Cumulative Injury Cycle

Tissue Trauma?Inflammation?Muscle spasm ?Adhesions?Altered Neuromuscular Control?Muscle Imbalance
Cycle causes decreased performance and eventual injury


Highly integrated and dynamic process that involves the interaction of multiple neurological pathways


Cumulative neural input to CNS from mechanoreceptors that sense limb position and movement


Exist in muscle, ligament, & articular structures

Muscle Spindles

> Within muscle fiber
> Sense rate of length change

Golgi Tendon Organs

> At musculotendinous junction
> Sense rate of tension change
> Inhibitory effect on skeletal muscle

Reciprocal Inhibition

Tight muscle causes decreased neural drive to its functional antagonist

Synergistic Dominance

Tight synergist compensates for a weak prime mover in order to maintain force production

Causes of Muscular Imbalances

> Postural stress
> Pattern overload
> Repetitive movement
> Lack of core stability
> Lack of neuromuscular efficiency

Lower Crossed Syndrome

> Increased lumbar lordosis & anterior pelvic tilt
> Common injury patterns- hamstring strains, anterior knee pain, low back pain, groin strain

Upper Crossed Syndrome

> Rounded shoulders & forward head posture
> Common injury patterns- rotator cuff impingement, shoulder instability, biceps tendonitis, headaches

Pronation Distortion Syndrome

> Excessive foot pronation, increased knee flexion & internal rotation
> Feet flatten during squatting, stepping & lunging movements
> Heels rise off ground during these movements
> Common injury patterns- plantar fasciitis, "shin splints", anterior knee

Healthy waist to hip ratio for women

? .86

Healthy waist to hip ratio for men

? .95

Items used in mobility training

lacrosse balls

Muscular Strength Tests

> Hand dynamometer
> 1-RM bench press test

Muscular Endurance Tests

> Flexed arm hang
> Side bridge
> Push-Ups
> YMCA bench press test
> Partial Curl Ups