Biology Praxis

Which of the following is the term that refers to that which will develop into the first leaves of a bean plant?
Hypocotyl.
Plumule.
Radicle.
First foliage leaves.

First foliage leaves

Which of the following habitats could be predicted to have a higher level of biodiversity?
Equatorial rainforest.
Temperate deciduous forest.
Arctic tundra.
Savannah.

Equatorial rainforest

All of the following statements explain why it is hard for the body to fight HIV EXCEPT:
it attacks immune system cells
the virus can be latent
the virus has a sticky capsule
the virus is highly variable

the virus has a sticky capsule

Which of the following genetic diseases is most common in people of African descent?
Tay-Sachs disease
Cystic fibrosis
Huntington's disease
Sickle-cell anemia

Sickle-cell anemia

All of the following statements about lichen are true EXCEPT:
are not a single organism
are extremely resistant to drought but not cold
can grow on rocks in the desert
break down the rocks they grow on

can grow on rocks in the desert

For a certain trait where 'G' denotes the dominant allele, and 'g' denotes the recessive allele, Bob is Gg; Sam is gg; and Phil is GG. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Bob is homozygous, Sam is heterozygous, and Phil is homozygous dominant.
b

b. Bob is heterozygous, Sam is homozygous recessive, and Phil is homozygous dominant.

What is identical between a mole of the amino acid valine and a mole of sucrose?
Mass
Volume
Number of molecules
Taste

Number of molecules

Based on these graphs, what year had the highest pro-ecological sentiment in this area? (Assume the same number of people respond each year. )
2004
2000
2008
It is impossible to tell from the data given.

2000

Which of the following bacterial species carry out the process of denitrification?
Pseudomonas
Clostridium
Nitrosomonas
Both A and B

Both A and B

A dinoflagellate is characterized by what?
a pair of flagella in perpendicular grooves.
a single flagellum at the rear of the organism.
multiple flagella covering the surface of the organism.
a double flagella at the rear of the organism.

a pair of flagella in perpendicular grooves.

These pictures show _______ structures in diverse organisms.
Similar.
Identical.
Vestigial.
Homologous.

Homologous

The seed coat develops from which of the following?
The sepals.
The endosperm.
The ovary wall.
The ovule wall.

The ovule wall

Three basic types of RNA are required to carry out protein synthesis. Which of the following is not a type of RNA required for the transcription and translation of DNA into protein?
Ribosomal
Messenger
Transfer
Mitochondrial

Mitochondrial

Why did birds evolve light skeletons, no teeth and absence of some organs?
For flight.
To aid in endothermy.
To conserve energy for feather growth.
For efficient respiration.

For flight

In the graph above, during what time does the number of living bacteria increase at the greatest rate?
Between the 2nd and 4th hour.
Between the 4th and 6th hour.
Between the 6th and 10th hour.
Between the 11th and 13th hour.

B/w 2 &6

. The first scientist who applied the statistical method in biology was:
Charles Darwin
Francis Galton
Louis Pasteur
Alexander Oparin

Francis Galton

Which of the following is NOT a difference between RNA and DNA?
RNA has uracil instead of thymine as one of its nucleotide bases.
RNA is single stranded.
The sugar component of RNA's nucleotides is ribose.
RNA is a polynucleotide.

RNA is a polynucleotide

All of the following statements about monocots and dicots are true EXCEPT:
a. monocot leaves have parallel veins while dicot leaves have branched veins
b. monocots have floral parts in multiples of three while dicots have floral parts in multiples of 4 or

d. monocots have a taproot while dicots have fibrous roots

Which of the following is likely consequence of ingesting Co-60 in contaminated food and water?
a. Inhibits cellular respiration of the enzymes of citric acid cycle
b. Decreased erythropoietin biosynthesis
c. Decreased production of RBC
d. Deactivates the

a. Inhibits cellular respiration of the enzymes of citric acid cycle

A certain habitat has the following characteristics. Average daily high temperature of -5� C. Low species diversity and density. Low yearly rainfall. In which of the following biomes is the habitat located?
a. desert
b. taiga
c. savanna
d. tropical rain f

...

A certain habitat has the following characteristics. Average daily high temperature of -5� C. Low species diversity and density. Low yearly rainfall. In which of the following biomes is the habitat located?
desert
taiga
savanna
tropical rain forest

desert

Which of the following systems is inhibited by the sympathetic nervous system?
cardiovascular system
respiratory system
digestive system
muscular system

digestive system

Which statement in the numbered list above is NOT an assumption made in the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
1. The organism in question is diploid.
2. Reproduction is sexual.
5. Population size is very small.
7. Mutation can be ignored.

Population size is very small.

During translation, after mRNA enters the cytoplasm, which of the following does it attach to?
a DNA molecule
a codon
a ribosome
a mitochondria

ribosome

Blood in the capillaries of fish gills flows in a direction opposite to the flow of water. Why?
a. This is the only way oxygen can be absorbed from the water.
b. This is merely a coincidence, and does not confer a survival advantage to the fish.
c. This i

d. This sets up a counter-current exchange, which favors the diffusion of oxygen into the blood throughout the length of the capillary.

The light reactions of photosynthesis convert solar energy into what type of energy, useful for the synthesis of glucose and other cellular processes?
a. Chemical
b. Thermal
c. Nuclear
d. Hydroelectric

chemical

The diploid Ulva alga undergoes meiosis to produce haploid reproductive cells called which of the following?
spores
gametophytes
sporozoids
zygotes

spores

Which of the following enzymes is used to splice an inserted gene into another chromosome and results in the production of a recombinant DNA molecule?
DNA ligase
endonuclease
lysozyme
carbonic anhydrase

DNA ligase

This plant cell organelle stores chemicals and plays a part in plant growth.
Mitochondria.
Chloroplast.
Tonoplast.
Vacuole.

vacuole

Which of the following fish does not have jaws?
Manta ray.
Eel.
Basking shark.
Lamprey.

Lamprey

A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction is what?
Buffer.
Activator.
Catalyst.
Phosphorylator.

Catalyst

Which of the following is NOT a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)?
Synthesis of lipids.
Metabolism of proteins.
Metabolism of carbohydrates.
Detoxification of drugs and poisons.

Metabolism of proteins

A male lion must have his own territory to hunt and to attract females for mating. This is an example of which of the following?
intraspecific competition
interspecific competition
predatory-prey
symbiosis

intraspecific competition

Which of the following would be an imperfect flower?
One that does not have sepals.
One that is found on a monoecious plant.
One that is staminate.
One that cannot self-pollinate.

one that is staminate

hich of the following is incorrect in relation to taxonomic structure?
There are many Classes in one Kingdom.
There are many Classes in one Phylum.
There are many Orders in one Family.
There are many Species in one Family.

There are many classes in one family.

The A=T and G=C rule in DNA structure is known as what?
Watson's rule.
Griffith's model.
Chargaff's rule.
Hershey's tenet.

Chargaff's rule

What is true of the intrinsic rate when a population is increasing?
a. It is the fastest growth rate possible for a population reproducing under ideal conditions.
b. It is the growth rate of a population that exploits an unfilled environment.
c. It is the

It is the fastest growth rate possible for a population reproducing under ideal conditions.

All of the following conditions need to be met for the Hardy-Weinberg law to work EXCEPT:
the gene pool must be large
no migration can be allowed
mating must be planned
no mutations

mating must be planned

All of the following are the end products of digestion EXCEPT:
cholesterol
sugars
amino acids
fatty acids

cholesterol

A section of DNA with the nucleotide sequence 5'-ATTGCTA-3' is being transcribed. Which of the following is the result?
ATTGCTA.
TAACGAT.
UAACGAU.
TUUCGUT.

UAACGAU.

There is a population of a certain species of animal that annually rises above its carrying capacity, then falls far below it. Which of the following groups does the species most likely belong to?
primates
aves
arthropoda
carnivora

arhtropoda

Barbara and all three of her children have a certain disease. The father of all three children does not have the disease, nor is he the carrier of any trait. Two of the children are female and the other is male. Barbara's children then have their own chil

The trait is found in mitochondrial DNA

In which of the following organelles does the Krebs cycle occur?
nucleus
mitochondria
rough endoplasmic reticulum
chloroplast

mitochondria

Biogeography is defined as what?
The characteristics of an ecosystem.
Climate.
The geographic distribution of species.
The study of the fossil record.

The geographic distribution of species

Which of the following is true of arthropods?
a. In terms of numbers, they are the most successful phylum of animals to ever live.
b. There are an estimated 1018 organisms living on Earth.
c. Nearly a million species have been named and described.
d. All

All of the above

This piece of lab equipment is best used for all except which of the following? (beaker)
Mixing substances.
Heating substances.
Measuring.
Titrating.

Measuring

A sperm cell uses which of the following for swimming?
cilia
membrane pump
flagellum
mitochondria

flagellum

A biochemist determines that the effect of an enzyme inhibitor can be overcome by adding additional substrate to the reaction vessel. What can be said about the inhibitor?
It is noncompetitive
It is competitive
It is a suicide substrate
It is not a true i

It is competitive

Which of the following best describes what a carrier is?
a. a male who has two sex-linked chromosomes for a genetic disease
b. a female who has two alleles for a genetic disease
c. a male who has an allele for a disease and has the disease
d. a female who

d. a female who has an allele for a disease but does not have the disease

From a chemical standpoint, which of the following is considered an organic compound?
NH3
HCl
HCl2
C3H8

C3H8

Carbohydrates perform all of the following functions for cells EXCEPT
speed up chemical reactions
provide energy
provide structure
identify cells

speed up chemical reactions

What is the major genetic abnormality in Turner syndrome?
Multiple X chromosomes and one Y chromosome
Multiple X chromosomes and no Y chromosome
Multiple Y chromosomes
Partly or completely missing an X chromosome

Partly or completely missing an X chromosome

According to the above diagram, which of the following is identified by the number 12?
coarse focus
fine focus
objective lense
illuminator

Coarse focus

All of the following could be a result of genetically engineered foods EXCEPT:
introduce new food allergens
have positive effects on the animals eating the foods
raise nutrient levels
have adverse effects on animals eating the foods

have positive effects on the animals eating the foods

Which of the following would NOT be an advantageous criteria in an organism when studying developmental genetics?
Simple genomes.
Short generation times.
High reproductive rates.
In utero development.

In uetro development

Imagine the following scenario: Some horse breeders were interested in horses that were perfect for pulling a loaded wagon. The breeders wanted horses with some speed; so they did not want horses that were too large. Nor did they want horses that were too

stabilizing selection

What is meant by the idea that polygenic characters are multifactorial?
a. The expression of genes is regulated by multiple enzymatic factors.
b. The expression of a phenotype is regulated by the environment.
c. The expression of a genotype is regulated b

The combination of genetic and environmental factors influence phenotype

Can a non-pathogenic microbe cause disease?
a. No, non-pathogenic means it is not capable of causing disease.
b. Yes, non-pathogenic only refers to its ability to replicate.
c. Yes, in an immunocompromised host.
d. No, a non-pathogenic microbe is one that

c. Yes, in an immunocompromised host.

Which of the following is a likely explanation for why the average American generates twice as much trash today as in 1960?
Americans don't care about the environment.
More disposable goods are made today.
The economy was better in 1960.
More people live

More disposable goods are made today.

Approximately how much urine is made by the kidneys each minute?
One milliliter
One cup
One liter
One microliter

One milliliter

What gas is represented by #5?
Oxygen,
Nitrogen.
Carbon dioxide.
Ozone.

Oxygen

An evolutionary biologist in the Antarctic is studying a large group of penguins that cannot fly, and that have never been observed swimming. A large ice sheet breaks off, separating the population into two sections. How might the biologist best use that

Study both groups of penguins and compare them in their new environments.

Rennet, the traditional enzyme that causes milk to curdle in the making of hard cheeses, is extracted from which of the following?
genetically modified fungi
mold
calf stomachs
sheep stomachs

Calf stomachs

Ecosystems have a 10% rule. According to this rule, compared to the pike, the bleak has what?
10 times as much energy.
1/10 as much energy.
1/100th the energy.
100 times as much energy.

100 times as much energy

Which of the following describes the reproductive process called fragmentation?
a. A new individual splits off from existing ones.
b. Regrowth of new body parts, or of an individual from body parts.
c. The self-fertilization of an egg by its own parent.
d

d. Breaking of the body into several pieces, some or all which develop into adults.

If an organism has a gamete with a haploid number (n)of 9 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be contained in a somatic cell?
18
9
36
27

18

How many molecules of ATP are formed by one "rotation" of the Kreb's cycle?
Zero
One
Two
Six

one

Fungi build their cell walls mainly of what?
Cellulose.
Lignin.
Chitin.
Cytrids.

chitin

Narrow channels that act as intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between plant cells are what?
Plasmodesmata.
Cellular pores.
Cellular channels.
Microfilaments.

Plasmodesmata

Which of the following is a symptom of a person with hemophilia?
bald patches on the head
lack of antibodies in the blood
a cut won't stop bleeding
racing heartbeat

a cut won't stop bleeding

Skeletal muscle is also called what?
Mesentary muscle.
Smooth muscle.
Striated muscle.
Reticular muscle.

striated muscles

Which of the following is not true concerning human arteries?
a. The aorta is the largest artery.
b. Under normal circumstances, arteries always contain oxygenated blood.
c. Routine blood pressure is measured in the arteries.
d. The carotid artery carries

b. Under normal circumstances, arteries always contain oxygenated blood.

What is the major genetic abnormality in Klinefelter's syndrome?
One X and no Y chromosome
Three copies of chromosome 21
Multiple X chromosomes and one Y chromosome
Multiple X chromosomes and no Y chromosome

Multiple X chromosomes and one Y chromosome

All of the following are functions of the root EXCEPT:
absorption of minerals
absorption of carbon dioxide
absorption of water
storage of sugar

absorption of carbon dioxide

The soil solution is prevented from penetrating the entire plant by the presence of which of the following?
The apoplast.
The symplast.
The plasmodesmata.
Casparian strip.

casparian strip

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are removed from which of the following?
gamete
zygote
egg cell
blastocyst

blastocyst

Which of the following molecules functions in the electron transport system?
Coenzyme
PGA
RDP
PGAL

coenzyme

Which of the following are at the top of the ecological pyramid?
tertiary consumers
secondary consumers
primary consumers
producers

tertiary consumers

A growth in the length of the shoots and roots is known as which of the following?
Secondary growth.
Primary growth.
Tertiary growth.
Indeterminate growth.

primary growth

Scientific thinking usually begins with which of the following?
observation
forming a hypothesis
designing an experiment
deciding on an independent variable

observation

Most of the water taken up by a plant will eventually become which of the following?
Absorbed by cells during elongation.
Returned to the soil by osmosis through the roots.
Incorporated directly into organic material.
Lost by transpiration through the sto

lost by transpiration through the stomata

What is the primary function of PCR (polymerase chain reaction)?
To make many copies of a specific segment of DNA
To replicate a genome rapidly
To create DNA polymerase proteins
To determine paternity

To make many copies of a specific segment of DNA

Which of the following is NOT an example of negative feedback that would limit population growth?
a. Limited food supply.
b. Birth rates.
c. Predation.
d. Limited territorial space.

birth rates

Most fossils are found in which of the following?
a. metamorphic rock
b. igneous rock
c. sedimentary rock
d. petrified rock

sedimentary rock

Internal fertilization produces fewer zygotes, so what survival advantage does it have?
a. Zygote are more likely to contain fewer mutations.
b. It limits the number of fertilization events.
c. It has no survival advantage.
d. It allows for more parental

It allows for more parental protection

Which of the following is NOT a component of cellular respiration?
a. Glycolysis.
b. Krebs cycle.
c. Glycolytic decay.
d. Electron transport chain.

Glycolytic decay

Which compound contributes greatly to the buffering capacity of human blood?
a. Carbonic acid
b. Hydrochloric acid
c. Sodium hydroxide
d. Glutamic acid

carbonic acid

What is the neritic zone in a marine environment?
a. The zone along the shore.
b. The zone in open water.
c. The zone along the continental shelf.
d. The bottom surface zone.

the zone along the continental shelf

A family tree with the history of a certain trait shown across generations is what?
a. Family flow chart.
b. Pedigree.
c. Segregation tree.
d. Punnett Square.

pedigree

All of the following are examples of point source pollution EXCEPT:
a. chimneys
b. excess insecticides
c. sewers
d. fossil fuels

excess insecticides

What is the only start codon on mRNA? Hint: it also codes for methionine
a. AUG
b. UAG
c. UAA
d. UGA

AUG

A biome with high temperatures, a high amount of rainfall, and poor soil quality is known as which of the following?
a. Shrub land.
b. Temperate forest.
c. Grassland.
d. Tropical rain forest.

Tropical rain forest

Which structure, analogous to the inner mitochondrial membrane in animals, is the site of photosynthetic energy production in plants?
a. Thylakoid sacs/membranes
b. Nucleolus
c. Vacuole
d. Mesophyll

Thylakoid sacs/membranes

Which of the following fossil formations is most likely to contain an insect?
a. tar pits
b. refrigeration
c. amber
d. petrifaction

amber

Which of the following is NOT a phagocyte?
a. Granulocyte.
b. Macrophages.
c. Viruses.
d. Dendritic cells.

Viruses

Technology to clean up contaminated environments through the use of microorganisms is called what?
a. Bioremediation.
b. Phytodetoxification.
c. Microorganism regeneration.
d. Microtechnology.

Bioremediation

Which of the following definitions best defines the term "sere"?
a. Developmental stage found in ecological succession in an ecosystem
b. It is the climax stage of the succession
c. Succession of micro-organisms like fungi, bacteria, etc. occurring within

Developmental stage found in ecological succession in an ecosystem

Imagine the following scenario: Early greyhound breeders were interested in dogs with the greatest speed. They carefully selected from a group of dogs that ran the fastest. From their offspring, the greyhound breeders again selected those dogs that ran th

Directional selection

Most of the organic mass of a plant comes from which of the following?
a. Water
b. Carbon dioxide.
c. Nitrogen.
d. Minerals.

Carbon Dioxide

The bodies of most fungi are constructed of what?
a. Cellulose.
b. Lignin.
c. Hyphae.
d. Glucose

Hyphae