Where is the nucleolus located?
inside the nucleus
When is the nucleolus not visible?
when the cell divides
What is the function of nucleolus?
makes ribosomes that make proteins
What is the function of cytoskeleton?
helps maintain cell shape and moves organelles around
What are microfilaments made of?
What are microtubules made of?
Centrioles are found only in ___ cells.
Centrioles are composed of ___.
bundle of microtubules
Centrioles appear only during what time in the cell cycle?
cell division forming mitotic spindle
What is the function of mitochondria?
generate cellular energy (ATP)
What is the energy molecule used by the cell?
What is cellular respiration?
Do both plants and animals have mitochondria?
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
a network of hollow membrane tubules
What is the difference between the rough er and the smooth er?
The rough er has ribosomes on its surface and makes membrane proteins and proteins for export out of the cell. The smooth er lacks ribosomes on its surface and makes cell products that are used inside the cell
Name three examples of how the smooth er functions in different cells.
makes membrane lipids (steroids), regulates calcium (muscle cells), destroys toxic substances (liver)
What are ribosomes made of?
proteins and ribosomal ( the r in RNA )
What is the function of ribosomes?
join amino acids to make proteins (protein synthesis)
Where are ribosomes found in the cell?
attached to the rough er or free in the cytoplasm
What is the function of Golgi bodies?
receive proteins made by the er and transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends
How do we describe the appearance of the Golgi bodies in the cell?
like a stack of pancakes
What is the function of lysosomes?
break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts for cells
What do lysosomes have that helps them carry out their function?
What is the difference between cilia and flagella?
Cilia are shorter and more numerous. Flagella are longer and fewer on cells.
Do both plant and animal cells have vacuoles?
small or absent in animal cells, plant cells have a large central vaculoe
Do bacterial cells have vacuoles?
What is the function of the contractile vacuole?
regulates water intake by pumping out excess (homeostasis), keeps the cell from lysing
What type of organisms have contractile vacuoles?
unicellular protests like paramecia
What organisms have chloroplasts?
producers (organisms containing chlorophyll)
What is the function of the chloroplasts?
use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose)
What are the structures found in the chloroplasts?
enzymes and pigments for photosynthesis