51A Milady 2012 Chapter 10 Nail Disorders and Diseases

Beau's Line

Visible depression running along the width of the natural nail plate; usually a result of major illness or injury that has traumatized the body

Bruised Nails

Dark purplish spots, usually due to physical injury

Discolored Nails

Nails turn a of colors; may indicate surface staining, a systemic disorder or poor blood circulation

Eggshell Nails

Noticeably thin, white plate, more flexible than normal and can curve over the free edge; usually caused by improper diet, hereditary factors, internal disease, or medication


Living skin around the nail (often the eponychium) becomes split or torn

Leukonychia Spots

Also known as white spots; whitish discoloration of the nail; usually caused by minor injury to the nail matrix; not related to the body's health or vitamin deficiency


Darkening of the fingernails or toenails; may be seen as a black band within the nail plate, extending form the nail base to the free edge

Nail Psoriasis

Nail surface pitting, roughness, onycholysis, and bed discoloration

Nail Pterygium

Abnormal stretching of the skin around the nail plate; usually caused by serious injury, such as burns, or an adverse skin reaction to chemical nail enhancement or an allergic skin reaction


Also known as bitten nails; chewed nails or chewed hardened skin surrounding the nail plate


Split or brittle nails that have a series of lengthwise ridges giving a rough appearance to the surface of the nail plate

Pincer Nail

Also known as trumpet nail; increased crosswise curvature throughout the nail plate caused by an increased curvature of the matrix; the edges of the nail plate may curl around to form the shape of a trumpet or sharp cone at the free edge

Plicatured Nail

Also known as folded nail; a type of highly curved nail plate, usually caused by injury to the matrix, but it may be inherited


Vertical lines running the length of the natural nail plate that are caused by uneven growth of nails, usually the result of normal aging

Splinter Hemorrhages

Physical trauma or injury to the nail bed that damages the capillaries and allows small amounts of blood flow


Inflammation of the nail matrix, followed by shedding of the nail


Lifting of the nail plate from the nail bed, without shedding, usually beginning at the free edge and continuing toward the luna area


Separation and falling off of the nail plate from the nail bed; can affect fingernails and toenails


Fungal infection of the natural nail plate


Bacterial inflammation of the nail plate causing pus, swelling, and redness, usually in the skin fold adjacent to the nail plate

Pyogenic Granuloma

Severe inflammation of the nail in which a lump of red tissue grows up from the nail bed to the nail plate

Tinea Pedis

Red, itchy rash on the skin on the bottom of the feet and/or between the toes, usually between the fourth and fifth toe


Any deformity or disease of the natural nail


Also known as ingrown nail; can affect either the fingers or the toes. In this condition, the nail grows into the sides of the living tissue around the nail

Nail Disorder

Condition caused by an injury or disease of the nail unit

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

One of several common bacteria that can cause nail infection